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Table 4 Odds Ratios for ILI occurrence in the study population in the 2010/11 influenza season as a function of demographic features, lifestyle, underlying diseases and drug use, n = 508 (Multivariable analysis – Hierarchical approach)

From: Do the omeprazole family compounds exert a protective effect against influenza-like illness?

  Multivariable analysis
Variables Adjusted OR§ 95% CI p Adjusted OR§ 95% CI    p Adjusted OR§ 95% CI   p
  Level 1   Level 2   Level 3  
Demographic features and lifestyle habits          
Aged 65 yrs or more* 1.94 0.24;15.6 0.53       
Smoking** 0.64 0.37;1.14 0.13       
Drinking**# 3.04 1.22;7.59 0.02 2.17 0.87;5.51 0.09 ^ 2.10 0.87;4.94 0.10
Underlying pathologies          
Cardiovascular diseases** 0.34 0.14;0.83 0.02 0.56 0.22;1.39 0.21    
Hypertension** 1.26 0.68;2.35 0.47       
Respiratory diseases** 1.64 0.73;3.71 0.23       
Diabetes** 0.96 0.29;3.17 0.94       
Cancer** 1.08 0.15;7.93 0.94       
Kidney diseases** 0.61 0.14;2.71 0.51       
Dyslipidaemia** 0.17 0.07;0.42 0.0001 0.12 1.56 0.20    
Gastric ulcer** 0.20 0.07;0.54 0.002 1.18 0.31;4.57 0.82    
Gastric diseases**° 0.38 0.13;1.12 0.08 ^ 1.18 0.30;4.57 0.81    
Drugs taken          
Fibrates**     0.08 0.05;1.41 0.09 ^ 0.03 0.01;0.50 0.02
Statins**     0.28 0.07;1.15 0.08 ^ 0.15 0.05;0.43 <0.001
Antibiotics**     1.75 0.53;5.79 0.36    
Omeprazole family compounds**     0.31 0.13;0.76 0.01 0.29 0.15;0.52 <0.001
Vaccination status          
Influenza vaccination**        0.31 0.16;0.58 <0.001
  1. §Conditional logistic regression models.
  2. ^As several variables were included in each level, only those variables reaching p < 0.1 were kept in the next step, in order to avoid unstable estimates in subsequent models.
  3. *Reference: Less than 65 yrs.
  4. **Reference: NO.
  5. #Reference: More than 2 glasses of wine or more than one glass of spirits a day.
  6. °Except Gastric ulcer.
  7. The statistical significant p values are reported in bold.