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Table 3 Main characteristics of cases and controls, broken down by demographic features, lifestyle habits, underlying pathologies, drug use and influenza vaccination status

From: Do the omeprazole family compounds exert a protective effect against influenza-like illness?

VARIABLES Cases (n = 254) Controls (n = 254) p-value*
Demographic features and lifestyle habits    
Aged 65 yrs or more^ 53 (20.9%) 50 (19.7%) 0.45
Smoking§ 37 (14.6%) 45 (17.7%) 0.40
Drinking†§ 23 (9.1%) 13 (5.1%) 0.12
Underlying Pathologies    
Cardiovascular diseases§ 14 (5.5%) 38 (15.0%) 0.0004
Hypertension§ 56 (22.0%) 53 (20.9%) 0.80
Respiratory diseases§ 21 (8.3%) 21 (8.3%) 0.87
Diabetes§ 9 (3.5%) 19 (7.5%) 0.06
Cancer§ 3 (1.2%) 5 (2.0%) 0.72
Kidney diseases§ 7 (2.8%) 8 (3.1%) 1.00
Dyslipidemia§ 9 (3.5%) 45 (17.7%) <0.0001
Gastric ulcer§ 5 (2.0%) 29 (11.4%) <0.0001
Gastric diseases§ ǂ 5 (2.0%) 14 (5.5%) 0.07
Drugs taken    
Fibrates§ 1 (0.4%) 8 (3.1%) 0.046 **
Statins§ 9 (3.5%) 44 (17.3%) <0.0001
Antibiotics§ 8 (3.1%) 5 (2.0%) 0.58
Omeprazole family compounds§ 19 (7.5%) 73 (28.7%) <0.0001
Vaccination status    
Influenza vaccination§ 44 (17.3%) 86 (33.9%) <0.0001
  1. ^Reference: Less than 65 yrs.
  2. Reference: More than 2 glasses of wine or more than one glass of spirits a day.
  3. §Reference: NO.
  4. ǂExcept Gastric ulcer.
  5. *Two-tailed p-value (McNemar’s test for matched case-control studies).
  6. **According to conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be statistically significant.
  7. The statistical significant p values are reported in bold.