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Table 2 Characteristics of included reviews

From: Interventions to improve delivery of isoniazid preventive therapy: an overview of systematic reviews

Author, year, reference Systematic review objective(s) Study settings (no. of studies related to IPT delivery) Participants Countries where studies conducted Percent studies in high TB incidence settinga Outcome related to TCR Applicability
Al-Darraji, 2012 [23] Review interventions to improve IPT delivery in correctional facilities Jails and prisons (18) Adults US, Spain, Singapore 6% Median TCR 44% (3-87%); low TCRs among RCTs (23, 12 and 12%) Behavior of incarcerated adults may not be generalizable; incomplete HIV prevalence data
DeFulio, 2012 [24] Review use of incentives on medication adherence Methadone, primary care, and public clinics, homeless shelters (5) Adults and children US, Timor-Leste 20% TCR improved in 2 of 3 studies (44% v. 26% and 92% v. 82%); 1 showed no effect Behavior of addicted and homeless populations may not be generalizable; only 1 study included children, none specified inclusion of HIV populations
Hirsch-Moverman, 2008 [26] To identify predictors of adherence and adherence interventions Jails, refugee camp, homeless shelter, healthcare setting (19) IV drug users, incarcerated, homeless, refugee/ foreign-born, healthcare workers, aboriginal populations US and Canada 0% Inconsistent across studies; no single intervention reliably showed effectiveness Mixed adult populations; lack of regional diversity; incomplete HIV prevalence data
Lewin, 2010 [9] To assess the effects of lay health worker interventions in primary and community health care on maternal and child health and the management of infectious diseases US (2) IV drug users, adolescents (ages 11-19, mostly Hispanic American) US 0% Little to no effect on treatment completion (RR = 1 · 0) No children under age 5 included, 20% HIV-infected in one study, HIV status unknown in other study
Uyei, 2011 [25] To examine the effect of strategies for TB and HIV service integration on delivery, outcomes for patients, and cost-effectiveness Counseling and testing centers, hospitals, clinics (6) HIV-infected patients Botswana, South Africa, Uganda 100% High adherence (75-92%); moderate to high TCRs (47-88%) Unclear if children included
Zuñiga, 2012 [27] To synthesize data on LTBI treatment adherence in Hispanic populations in the US Clinics and public health programs dispensing LTBI treatment (12) Hispanic adults US 0% Self-reports of LTBI adherence may be inaccurate; power dynamic impedes patient and healthcare provider communication; direct measures of adherence will improve validity of results No children included; adult Hispanic populations only, no HIV data
  1. aHigh TB incidence defined as TB incidence > 30/100,000.
  2. IPT = isoniazid preventive therapy; TB = tuberculosis; TCR = treatment completion rate; RCT = randomized controlled trial; IV = intravenous; LTBI = latent tuberculosis infection.