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Table 1 Characteristics of residents with nasal colonization of MRSA in the PPS (n = 193)

From: The general status of patients and limited physical activity as risk factors of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurrence in long-term care facilities residents in Krakow, Poland

Characteristics of the study group No of participants % MRSA Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  With MRSA Without MRSA   OR; 95% CI p-value OR; 95% CI p-value
Gender     0.38; 0.13-1.07 - 1.83; 0.623-6.226 0.0405
 Male 5 72 6.9     
 Female 18 98 25.0     
Type of care     0.31; 0.11-0.86 0.0011 2.76; 0.102-9.787 -
 RHs 5 81 6.9
 NH 18 89 25.0
Diabetes     2.55; 1.049-6.18 - 4.84; 0.786-25.933 -
 Yes 11 45 15.3
 No 12 125 16.7
Urinary incontinence: diapers     1.49; 0.61-3.59 0.0196 1.83; 0.565-11.487 -
 Yes 10 58 13.9
 No 13 112 18.1
Urinary permanent catheterization     2.3; 0.89-5.89 0.0014 1.267; 0.231-7.991 -
 Yes 8 32 11.1
 No 15 138 20.8
Dysphagia     0.79; 0.22-2.86 0.0118 0.68; 0.103-53.815 -
 Yes 3 27 4.2
 No 20 143 27.8
Nasogastric tube     55.63; 6.49-477.09 0.0228 1.93 e-7; 0.0-2.64 e-31 -
 Yes 7 19 9.7
 No 16 151 22.2
Ulcers     4.1; 0.95-17.68 0.0482 0.21; 0.039-1.273 -
 Yes 3 6 4.2
 No 20 164 27.8
Feeding via gastrostomy tube     3.94; 1.42-10.92 0.041 1.91; 0.123-8.134 -
 Yes 7 17 9.7
 No 16 153 22.2
Age mean ± SD (95% CI) [years] 79.9 ± 116 (75.3-84.5) NA - NA 0.0132
Length of stay mean ± SD (95% CI) [years] 3.8 ± 1.2 (1.4; 6.1) NA 0.0151 NA -
Barthel’s Index, mean ± SD (95% CI) 21.3 ± 25.5 (11.2-31.4) NA <0.001 NA -
Katz scale, mean ± SD (95% CI) 1.6 ± 1.9 (0.9-2.4) NA 0.004 NA -
Physical activity* mean ± SD (95% CI) [scale 1-5] 3.7 ± 1.3 (3.2-4.2) NA <0.0013 NA 0.0009
  1. *Physical dependence of the residents was classified according to a five-point scale (1-independent, 2- independent with falls, 3-limitations in movement, 4-bedridden, mobile, 5-bedridden, dependent).
  2. SD – standard deviation; 95% CI – 95% confidence interval; NA not applicable.