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Table 3 Total cost of vaccination strategies for moderate pandemics (R = 1.9 and CFR = 0.25%) and severe pandemics (R = 2.7 and CFR = 1.5%)

From: A model-based economic analysis of pre-pandemic influenza vaccination cost-effectiveness

  Moderate pandemics (R = 1.9 and CFR = 0.25%)
Scenarios SD and AV intervention Total cost ($) per 10,000 population
Pre-emptive vaccination Reactive vaccination
Scenario 1: no pandemic none $2,430,000 $0
  Pre-emptive + Reactive vaccination Reactive vaccination
Scenario 2: pandemic with virus which does not match pre-emptive vaccine i.e. vaccine efficacy of 0% none $6,510,000 $4,080,000
8 weeks SD + AV $7,510,000 $5,080,000
Sustained SD + AV $10,460,000 $8,030,000
Unmitigated pandemic cost (no intervention) $3,200,000
  Pre-emptive vaccination Reactive vaccination
Scenario 3: pandemic with virus which matches pre-emptive vaccine with efficacy of 30% none $4,250,000 $4,080,000
8 weeks SD + AV $5,020,000 $5,080,000
Sustained SD + AV $6,820,000 $8,030,000
Unmitigated pandemic cost (no intervention) $3,200,000
  Pre-emptive Vaccination Reactive vaccination
Scenario 4: pandemic with virus which matches pre-emptive vaccine with efficacy of 75% none $3,630,000 $4,080,000
8 weeks SD + AV $4,800,000 $5,080,000
Sustained SD + AV $6,310,000 $8,030,000
Unmitigated pandemic cost (no intervention) $3,200,000
  Extreme pandemics (R = 2.7 and CFR = 1.5%)
Scenarios SD and AV intervention Total cost ($) per 10,000 population
Pre-emptive vaccination Reactive vaccination
Scenario 1: no pandemic none $2,430,000 $0
  Pre-emptive + Reactive vaccination Reactive vaccination
Scenario 2: pandemic with virus which does not match pre-emptive vaccine i.e. vaccine efficacy of 0% none $17,480,000 $15,050,000
8 weeks SD + AV $15,000,000 $12,570,000
Sustained SD + AV $13,430,000 $11,000,000
Unmitigated pandemic cost (no intervention) $14,180,000
  Pre-emptive vaccination Reactive vaccination
Scenario 3: pandemic with virus which matches pre-emptive vaccine with efficacy of 30% none $10,190,000 $15,050,000
8 weeks SD + AV $8,420,000 $12,570,000
Sustained SD + AV $8,810,000 $11,000,000
Unmitigated pandemic cost (no intervention) $14,180,000
  Pre-emptive vaccination Reactive vaccination
Scenario 4: pandemic with virus which matches pre-emptive vaccine with efficacy of 75% none $3,760,000 $15,050,000
8 weeks SD + AV $5,100,000 $12,570,000
Sustained SD + AV $6,970,000 $11,000,000
Unmitigated pandemic cost (no intervention) $14,180,000