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Table 3 Total cohort: univariate analysis of factors associated with embolism*

From: Predicting the occurrence of embolic events: an analysis of 1456 episodes of infective endocarditis from the Italian Study on Endocarditis (SEI)

Characteristics IE episodes IE episodes p ≤ †
  with embolic without embolic  
  events events  
Number of episodes of IE 499 957  
Age (y) 62 (28 to 81) 67 (31 to 84) 0.0002
Male 361 (72) 657 (69) NS
Hemodialysis 10 (2) 19 (2) NS
Diabetes mellitus 86 (17) 182 (19) NS
HIV infection 29 (6) 23 (2) 0.004
Cancer 46 (9) 129 (13) 0.03
Chronic liver disease 115 (23) 147 (15) 0.0005
Current intravenous drug abuse 74 (15) 57 (6) 0.0001
Previous IE 38 (8) 80 (8) NS
Chronic intravenous access 59 (12) 95 (10) NS
Congenital heart disease 38 (8) 74 (8) NS
Native valve predisposition 132 (26) 270 (28) NS
Nosocomial IE 29 (6) 50 (5) NS
Health care associated IE 107 (21) 227 (24) NS
Community-acquired IE 363 (73) 680 (71) NS
Native vs prosthetic valve 385 vs 114 732 vs 225 NS
Site of IE (n = 1282)  
  Mitral vs aortic valve 166 vs 161 329 vs 359 NS
  Bivalvular involvement (mitral and aortic) 39 (8) 78 (8) NS
Right-sided IE 60 (12) 29 (3) 0.0001
CIED-IE 21 (4) 40 (4) NS
Vegetations (n = 710)‡  
  Size of all vegetations (mm) 14 (6 to 30) 10 (4 to 26) 0.0001
  ≥ 10 mm 228 (79) 264 (63) 0.0001
  ≥ 15 mm 142 (49) 145 (35) 0.0001
  ≥ 20 mm 74 (26) 78 (19) 0.03
Concomitant therapy at onset of IE  
  Anticoagulants 102 (20) 228 (24) NS
  Antiaggregants 68 (14) 103 (11) NS
Microbiology    
  Staphylococcus aureus 141 (28) 142 (15) 0.0001
  Viridans group streptococci 66 (13) 151 (16) NS
  Coagulase-negative staphylococci 52 (10) 95 (10) NS
  Enterococcus species 45 (9) 137 (1) 0.004
  Streptococcus bovis 44 (9) 98 (10) NS
  Polymicrobial 19 (4) 32 (3) NS
  Other microorganisms 16 (3) 45 (6) NS
  Other streptococci 16 (3) 43 (5) NS
  Fungi/yeasts 7 (1) 13 (1) NS
  HACEK 1 (0.2) 2 (0.2) NS
  Microbiology negative 92 (18) 199 (21) NS
  1. *Total cohort, N = 1456 episodes of infective endocarditis. Data reported as number, median (range, 5th to 95th percentile), or number (%). Abbreviations: CIED-IE infective endocarditis associated with a cardiac implantable electronic device, HACEK Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, IE infective endocarditis.
  2. †NS, not significant (p > 0.05).
  3. ‡ IE episodes with vegetations of known size: 710 episodes (290 episodes with embolism and 420 episodes without embolism).
  4. Bold numbers represent statistically significant differences.