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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the cohort*

From: Predicting the occurrence of embolic events: an analysis of 1456 episodes of infective endocarditis from the Italian Study on Endocarditis (SEI)

Characteristics All episodes LS-NVE LS-PVE RS-IE CIED-IE
Number of IE episodes 1456 (100) 967 (66.4) 339 (23.3) 89 (6.1) 61 (4.2)
Age (y) 65 (50 to 64) 64 (48 to 74) 70 (61 to 76) 48 (35 to 67) 67 (55 to 77)
Male 1018 (70) 688 (71) 221 (65) 61 (69) 48 (79)
Comorbidity and predisposing conditions  
  Native valve disease 372 (26) 299 (31) 60 (18) 7 (8) 6 (10)
  Diabetes mellitus 268 (18) 164 (17) 79 (23) 10 (11) 15 (25)
  Chronic liver disease 262 (18) 169 (18) 49 (15) 38 (43) 6 (10)
  Cancer 175 (12) 131 (14) 28 (8) 10 (11) 6 (10)
  Chronic intravenous access 154 (11) 102 (11) 34 (10) 11 (12) 7 (12)
  Current intravenous drug abuse 131 (9) 81 (8) 14 (4) 34 (38) 2 (3)
  Previous IE 118 (8) 48 (5) 59 (17) 7 (8) 4 (7)
  Congenital heart disease 112 (8) 85 (9) 16 (5) 6 (7) 5 (8)
  Immunosuppressive therapy 86 (6) 70 (7) 11 (3) 2 (2) 3 (5)
  HIV infection 52 (4) 36 (4) 4 (1) 10 (11) 2 (3)
  Hemodialysis 29 (2) 21 (2) 4 (1) 2 (2) 2 (3)
Microbiology  
  Staphylococcus aureus 283 (19) 181 (19) 53 (16) 35 (39) 14 (23)
  Viridans group streptococci 217 (15) 172 (18) 29 (9) 8 (9) 8 (13)
  Enterococcus species 182 (13) 117 (12) 53 (16) 8 (9) 4 (7)
  Coagulase-negative staphylococci 147 (10) 74 (8) 55 (16) 4 (5) 14 (23)
  Streptococcus bovis 142 (10) 105 (11) 29 (9) 7 (8) 1 (2)
  Other streptococci 59 (4) 46 (5) 7 (2) 3 (3) 3 (5)
  Other microorganisms 61 (4) 36 (4) 20 (6) 2 (2) 3 (5)
  Polymicrobial 51 (4) 34 (4) 10 (3) 4 (5) 3 (5)
  Fungi 20 (1) 12 (1) 8 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  HACEK 3 (0.2) 0 (0) 2 (0.6) 1 (1) 0 (0)
  Microbiology negative 291 (20) 190 (20) 73 (22) 17 (19) 11 (18)
  1. *Data reported as number, median (interquartile range), or number (% patients).
  2. Abbreviations: CIED-IE infective endocarditis associated with a cardiac implantable electronic device, HACEK Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, LS-NVE left-sided native valve endocarditis, LS-PVE left-sided prosthetic valve endocarditis, RS-IE right-sided infective endocarditis.