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Table 2 Studies documenting duration of VRE colonization meeting inclusion criteria

From: Natural history of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus(VRE): a systematic review

Author year [ref] VRE Study ID Design Country Year of study Subject description Screening site Screening method Latest documented follow up (weeks) N Lost to follow up (N) Clearance defined Weeks to documented clearance % cleared
Montecalvo 1995 [27] VREF A Prospective cohort USA 1993-4 Hospitalized patients Perianal CX; T 18 86 50 1 negative CX on admission and weekly negative culture during admission 18 2%
Brennen 1998 [28] VREF B Prospective cohort USA 1993-4 Residents in LTCFs Rectal CX 25 36 * 2 negative CX on 2 separate samplings 10 50%†
Goetz 1998 [29] VREF C Prospective cohort USA 1994-6 Hospitalized patients Rectal or stool CX * 210 61 1 negative CX on 2 separate samplings 14 40%†
Bhorade 1999 [30] ND D Prospective cohort USA 1996-8 Hospitalized patients Rectal or stool CX 2 10 6 1 negative CX on 5 separate samplings N/A 0%
Weinstein 1999 [31] VREF E Prospective cohort Canada 1995 Hospitalized patients Rectal CX 25 24 0 1 negative CX on at least 3 separate samplings 25 38%
D’Agata 2001 [32] ND F Prospective cohort USA 1998 Hospitalized patients Rectal CX 3 13 6 1 negative culture on at least 2 separate samplings 1 8%
Wong 2001 [33] ND G RCT USA * Hospitalized patients and residents of LTCFs Rectal CX 3 24 4 1 negative CX on 3 separate samplings 3 21%
Byers 2002 [34] ND H Retrospective cohort USA 1994-6 Hospitalized patients Rectal CX; T 86 116 0 1 negative CX on 3 separate samplings 22 64%
Hachem and Raad 2002 [35] VREF I Prospective cohort USA 1997 Hospitalized patients Stool CX 13 28 0 1 negative CX on at least 2 separate samplings 13 4%
Mascini 2003 [36] VREF J Prospective cohort Netherlands 2000 Hospitalized patients Rectal CX; PCR;T 26 11 (a) * 3 negative CX on at least 3 separate samplings 6 50%†
Huang 2007 [37] ND K1 Retrospective cohort USA 2002-4 Hospitalized patients Rectal CX; PCR (b) 52 394 (c) * 1 negative CX 9 24%
Huang 2007 [37] ND K Retrospective cohort USA 2002-4 Hospitalized patients Rectal CX; PCR (b) 52 126 (d) * 1 negative CX 43 84%
Park 2011 [38] ND L1 Retrospective cohort South Korea 2003-10 Hospitalized patients on chronic HD Rectal CX 39 89 20 1 negative CX on 3 separate samplings 16 10%
Park 2011 [38] ND L Retrospective cohort South Korea 2003-10 Hospitalized patients on non-chronic HD Rectal CX 35 723 339 1 negative CX on 3 separate samplings 9 12%
Yoon 2011 [39] VREF M Retrospective cohort South Korea 2006-9 Hospitalized patients Rectal CX 19 58 * 1 negative CX on 3 separate samplings 19 28%
  1. (a) Only patients with non-epidemic strain were included in analysis. (b) One of four participating sites used both culture and PCR; the others used culture only. (c) Subset of patients admitted ≤ 60 days from last known positive culture. (d) Subset of patients admitted > 300 days from last known positive culture.
  2. *Not documented; † Kaplan Meier estimates which do not provide information on those lost to follow up.
  3. HCW: health care worker; HD: Hemodialysis; LTCF: long term care facility; VRE: vancomycin resistant enterococcus; VREF: E. faecium; ND: no distinction made between E. faecalis and E faecium; N: number; CX: culture; T; strain typing performed; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; RCT: randomized controlled trial.