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Table 3 Detection of H7N9 nucleic acid in environmental specimens from live poultry markets

From: Epidemiologic characterization of 30 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Hangzhou, China

Type of specimen Case-related specimens Non-case specimens
Tested N H7N9+ N + rate (%) Tested N H7N9+ N + rate (%)
Feces 13 10 76.92 10 2 20.00
Anal swab 15 9 60.00 - - -
Throat swab 10 5 50.00 1 1 100.00
Drinking water - - - 8 3 37.50
Waste water 13 5 38.46 6 2 33.33
Feather smear 16 11 68.75 5 2 40.00
Cage smear 7 5 71.43 17 5 29.41
Others 16 13 81.82 22 7 31.82
Total 90 58 64.44 69 22 31.88
  1. Note: −: no specimen of the type available; in the specimens collected from the live poultry markets, the positive rate for H7N9 nucleic acid was markedly higher in the case-related specimens than in the non-case ones with a statistically significant difference by Pearson χ2 test (χ2 = 16.563, p < 0.05).