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Table 1 Age-adjusted logistic regression models predicting (A) impaired consciousness and (B) cerebral malaria (N = 213)

From: Plasmodium falciparumantigenic variation: relationships between widespread endothelial activation, parasite PfEMP1 expression and severe malaria

  A: impaired consciousness B: cerebral malaria
Models Explanatory variables OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
1$ Group A-like 4.5(1.7,11.4) 0.002 2.97(1.14, 7.76) 0.026
2 ang-2 3.0(1.9, 4.7) 0.000002 2.52(1.57, 4.03) 0.00012
3$ Parasite density (peripheral) 1.37(1.12, 1.67) 0.002 1.46(1.16, 1.84) 0.001
4 PfHRP2 1.34(1.13, 1.60) 0.001 1.43(1.17, 1.74) 0.0004
5$ IE surface antibodies 0.96(0.94, 0.98) 0.00002 0.96(0.94, 0.99) 0.001
6 Group A-like 3.5(1.32, 9.44) 0.012‡ 2.3(0.84,6.33) 0.1
ang-2 2.82(1.78, 4.46) 0.000009‡ 2.38(1.48, 3.82) 0.0003‡
7$ Group A-like 2.3(0.86, 6.3) 0.097 1.73(0.63, 4.77) 0.3
IE surface antibodies 0.96(0.94, 0.98) 0.0001‡ 0.97(0.95, 0.99) 0.003‡
8 ang-2 2.87(1.76, 4.66) 0.00002‡ 2.35(1.43, 3.85) 0.001‡
IE surface antibodies 0.96(0.94, 0.98) 0.00007‡ 0.97(0.95, 0.99) 0.003‡
9$ Group A-like 4.15(1.6, 10.7) 0.003‡ 2.65(0.99, 7.08) 0.05
Parasite density (peripheral) 1.3(1.1, 1.65) 0.005‡ 1.43(1.14, 1.81) 0.002‡
10 Group A-like 4.24(1.6, 11.21) 0.004‡ 2.68( 0.98,7.37) 0.05
  PfHRP2 1.32(1.12, 1.57) 0.001‡ 1.40(1.15, 1.71) 0.001‡
11 ang-2 2.7(1.7, 4.3) 0.00005‡ 2.17(1.33, 3.53) 0.002‡
Parasite density (peripheral) 1.21(0.97, 1.5) 0.09 1.32(1.04, 1.68) 0.023‡
12 ang-2 2.6(1.60, 4.24) 0.005‡ 2.07(1.24, 3.44) 0.005‡
  PfHRP2 1.18(0.98, 1.41) 0.080 1.28(1.04,1.58) 0.019‡
  1. The analysis in this table considers the outcomes IC and CM as factors, which means non-IC/CM severe cases are included in the control group and hence the analysis is conservative. The association of group A-like with impaired consciousness is independent of ang-2 (model 6). Similarly the IE surface antibodies and ang-2 show independent association with impaired consciousness (Model 8A, compare with model 7A). In Model 6B, the association of group A-like expression with CM is not statistically significant when ang-2 was considered. However, the odd ratios of both the unadjusted and ang-2 adjusted are similar in magnitude and direction. $ indicate models that have been published in [8, 10] and repeated here for comparison. ‡ = variables that improved the fit of the model using LR χ2 improvement test. PfHRP2 data was obtained for 207 out of the 213 samples.