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Table 2 Age-specific incidence rates of bacteremia for individuals previously discharged with a COPD diagnosis and reference individuals from the general population

From: Increased incidence of invasive bacterial disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared to the general population-a population based cohort study

COPD-patients Control Subjects
Pathogen N (%)1 Incidence2 N (%)1 Incidence2 HR (95% CI)3
Pooled bloodstream infections 1,265(100) 145.0 (137.2-153.2) 872 (100) 62.3 (58.3-66.5) 2.5 (2.2-2.7)
  40-59 years 157 (12.4) 87.4 (74.8-102.2) 68 (7.8) 29.1 (22.9-36.9) 3.1 (2.2-4.3)
  60-79 years 850 (67.2) 154.0 (144.0-164.7) 573 (65.7) 61.5 (56.7-66.8) 2.6 (2.3-3.0)
≥80 years 258 (20.4) 183.0 (162.0-206.8) 231 (26.5) 98.2 (86.3-111.7) 1.9 (1.5-2.3)
Staphylococcus aureus 183 (13.5) 21.0 (18.1-24.2) 127(12.8) 9.1 (7.7-10.8) 2.4(1.8-2.9)
Streptococcus pneumoniae 157 (11.2) 18.0 (15.4-21.0) 60(6.1) 4.3 (3.3-5.5) 4.1 (3.0-5.7)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 45 (3.2) 5.2 (3.9-6.9) 26 (3.0) 1.9 (1.3-2.7) 3.0 (1.8-5.2)
Enterobacteriacea 4 985 (42.0) 112.9 (106.0-120.2) 786 (48.5) 56.2 (52.3-60.2) 2.1 (1.9-2.5)
Enterococci 94 (7.2) 10.8 (8.8-13.1) 74 (8.2) 5.3 (4.2-6.6) 1.9 (1.3-2.6)
Streptococcus pyogenes 22 (1.6) 2.5 (1.7-3.8) 15 (1.6) 1.1 (0.6-1.8) 2.8 (1.4-5.6)5
Haemophilus influenzae 10 (0.7) 1.1 (0.6-2.1) 7 (0.7) 0.5 (0.2-1-0) 2.8 (1.0-7.7)5
Moraxella catarrhalis 1 NA 0 NA NA
  1. 1-Percentage of total blood cultures with growth in either COPD patients or control subjects. 2- Total (crude) incidence of bloodstream infections per 10,000 person-years of follow-up. Infectious episodes were separated by <30 days.3-Hazard ratio of time to first bloodstream infection estimated by Cox regression using time since inclusion as the time scale and stratified for age, year of birth and gender and adjusted for socio-economic position and co-morbidity conferring increased risk of severe bacterial infections. 4-E. coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Providencia spp., Proteus spp., Serratia marcescens.; 5-Due to the limited number of outcomes, this Cox model was only adjusted for total days spent in the hospital prior to inclusion.