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Table 3 Change in sexual behaviour between Sero5 and Sero6 associated with VCT use at Sero5, HIV-negative individuals

From: The impact of voluntary counselling and testing services on sexual behaviour change and HIV incidence: observations from a cohort study in rural Tanzania

  N with outcome (%)   
  No VCT Had VCT Crude risk ratio (95% CI) Adjusted risk ratio (95% CI)
Number of sex partners in last year    
  2336 % 502 %   
No change 1732 74.1 338 67.3 1 1
Increase 272 11.6 74 14.7 1.39 (1.05, 1.85)** 1.13 (0.82, 1.55)
Decrease 332 14.2 90 17.9 1.39 (1.07, 1.80)** 1.68 (1.25, 2.26)***
Acquired or lost a spouse α     
  2346 % 500 %   
No change 2043 87.1 423 84.6 1 1
Acquired 158 6.7 44 8.8 1.35 (0.95, 1.91)* 1.19 (0.82, 1.73)
Lost 145 6.2 33 6.6 1.1 (0.74, 1.63) 1.12 (0.74, 1.70)
Acquired or lost a regular non-cohabiting partner   
  2350 % 501 %   
No change 2017 85.8 399 79.6 1 1
Acquired 90 3.8 23 4.6 1.29 (0.81, 2.07) 1.23 (0.73, 2.07)
Lost 243 10.3 79 15.8 1.64 (1.25, 2.16)*** 1.48 (1.07, 2.04)**
Acquired or lost a high risk or casual partner Ω   
  2344 % 498 %   
No change 2062 88.0 406 81.5 1 1
Acquired 153 6.5 48 9.6 1.59 (1.13, 2.24)** 1.28 (0.84, 1.95)
Lost 129 5.5 44 8.8 1.73 (1.21, 2.48)** 1.57 (1.06, 2.31)**
Condom use at last sex with spouse #    
  1379 % 332 %   
No change 1345 97.5 326 98.2 1 1
Stopped using 18 1.3 3 0.9 0.69 (0.20, 2.35) 0.64 (0.18, 2.28)
Started using 16 1.2 3 0.9 0.77 (0.22, 2.67) 0.62 (0.17, 2.29)
Condom use at last sex with regular non-cohabiting partner #  
  75 % 29 %   
No change 51 68.0 20 69.0 1 1
Stopped using 12 16.0 5 17.2 1.06 (0.33, 3.40) 0.70 (0.14, 3.54)
Started using 12 16.0 4 13.8 0.85 (0.24, 2.95) 0.32 (0.06, 1.63)
Condom use at last sex with high risk or casual partner  
  18 % 10 %   
No change 10 55.6 6 60.0 1 1
Stopped using 1 5.6 2 20.0 3.33 (0.25, 45.11) -
Started using 7 38.9 2 20.0 0.48 (0.07, 3.09) -
Number times sex with spouse in last week #  
  1388 % 335 %   
No change 384 27.7 81 24.2 1 1
Increase 296 21.3 68 20.3 1.09 (0.76, 1.56) 1.03 (0.71, 1.51)
Decrease 708 51.0 186 55.5 1.25 (0.93, 1.66) 1.3 (0.96, 1.77)
Number times sex with regular non-cohabiting partner in last week #  
  75 % 29 %   
No change 27 36.0 11 37.9 1 1
Increase 19 25.3 7 24.1 0.9 (0.30, 2.76) 0.83 (0.21, 3.32)
Decrease 29 38.7 11 37.9 0.93 (0.35, 2.50) 0.92 (0.27, 3.14)
  1. All outcomes adjusted for age, sex, marital status, area of residence, level of education and previous VCT use as reported at the later sero-survey round.
  2. *p ≤ 0.1, **p ≤ 0.05, ***p ≤ 0.001.
  3. α‘Acquired or lost spouse’ was not adjusted for marital status (as this was the outcome).
  4. ΩQuestions related to ‘casual’ rather than ‘high risk’ partners at Sero6, however, the two categories were considered comparable.
  5. #Analyses conduced among those with relevant partner type at both rounds only.