Plasma cytokine and chemokine level in HIV negative and HIV positive TB cases. Unstimulated plasma samples from HIV positive TB cases (n = 16) and HIV negative TB cases (n = 17) were assessed by multiplex cytokine analysis. A) Growth factors (EGF and VEGF) B) Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL 12(p40), and TNF) C) Anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4) and D) Chemokines (IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1β and fractalkine). Horizontal lines indicate median of HIV negative (filled circles) and HIV positive TB cases (open circles). Data were analysed using nonparametric Mann–Whitney test with p-values indicating significant differences after transformation of data to Log10 values.