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Table 3 Crude and adjusted longitudinal estimates of the odds of used syringe lending among 455 ART-exposed active PWID with unsuppressed plasma HIV-1 RNA viral loads, Vancouver, Canada, 1996 – 2012

From: Incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active injection drug users with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA: a longitudinal analysis

Characteristic OR1 95% CI2 p-value AOR3 95% CI p-value
Incarceration4       
 Yes vs. no 1.76 1.01 – 3.05 0.046 1.81 1.03, 3.18 0.038
Age5       
 Per year 1.03 0.94 – 1.13 0.515    
Gender       
 Female vs. male 1.09 0.23 – 5.08 0.916    
Aboriginal ancestry       
 Yes vs. no 0.30 0.09 – 0.96 0.043    
Homeless5       
 Yes vs. no 1.18 0.40 – 3.47 0.759    
Education5       
 ≥ HS vs. < HS 0.82 0.36 – 1.86 0.635    
Employment4       
 Yes vs. no 3.55 0.53 – 23.99 0.193    
Heroin injection4       
 ≥ Daily vs. < daily 0.77 0.35 – 1.70 0.520    
Cocaine injection4       
 ≥ Daily vs. < daily 1.27 0.64 – 2.51 0.500    
Crack cocaine use4       
 ≥ Daily vs. < daily 0.86 0.40 – 1.84 0.691    
Binge drug use4       
 Yes vs. no 1.28 0.72 – 2.29 0.397    
MMT5       
 Yes vs. no 1.27 0.58 – 2.79 0.553    
Sex work4       
 Yes vs. no 1.72 0.67 – 4.44 0.259    
Year of observation       
 > 2001 vs ≤ 2001 0.11 0.03 – 0.36 < 0.001 0.15 0.08, 0.29 < 0.001
CD4+ cell count       
 Per 100 cells/mL 1.17 0.95 – 1.44 0.142    
  1. 1Odds Ratio; 295% Confidence Interval; 3Adjusted Odds Ratio; 4Refers to the six month period prior to follow-up; 5Refers to current status.