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Table 2 Crude and adjusted longitudinal estimates of the odds of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load non-suppression among 657 ART-exposed active PWID, Vancouver, 1996 – 2012

From: Incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active injection drug users with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA: a longitudinal analysis

Characteristic OR1 95% CI2 p-value AOR3 95% CI p-value
Incarceration4       
 Yes vs. no 2.00 1.47 – 2.72 < 0.001 1.54 1.10, 2.16 0.011
Age       
 Per year 0.90 0.87 – 0.92 < 0.001 0.91 0.88, 0.94 < 0.001
Gender       
 Female vs. male 1.69 1.07 – 2.67 0.024    
Aboriginal ancestry       
 Yes vs. no 1.35 0.86 – 2.11 0.189    
Homeless5       
 Yes vs. no 2.38 1.59 – 3.58 < 0.001 1.83 1.19, 2.82 0.006
Education       
 ≥HS vs < HS 0.89 0.66 – 1.22 0.476    
Employment4       
 Yes vs. no 0.48 0.25 – 0.92 0.028    
Heroin injection4       
 ≥ Daily vs. < daily 2.76 2.07 – 3.69 < 0.001 2.09 1.53, 2.87 <0.001
Cocaine injection4       
 ≥ Daily vs. < daily 1.52 1.18 – 1.97 0.001    
Crack cocaine use4       
 ≥ Daily vs. < daily 1.37 1.06 – 1.76 0.015    
Binge drug use4       
 Yes vs. no 1.09 0.88 – 1.36 0.426    
MMT5       
 Yes vs. no 0.46 0.35 – 0.59 < 0.001 0.52 0.39, 0.70 < 0.001
Sex work4       
 Yes vs. no 2.21 1.47 – 3.33 < 0.001    
HIV MD experience       
 < 6 patients vs. ≥ 6 1.93 1.08 – 3.46 0.026    
PI in first ART regimen       
 Yes vs. no 1.06 0.68 – 1.67 0.794    
CD4+ cell count4       
 Per 100 cells/mL 0.48 0.44 – 0.53 < 0.001 0.51 0.47, 0.56 < 0.001
ART adherence4       
 ≥ 95% vs < 95% 0.03 0.02 – 0.04 < 0.001    
  1. 1Odds Ratio; 295% Confidence Interval; 3Adjusted Odds Ratio; 4Refers to the six month period prior to follow-up; 5Refers to current status.