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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 657 ART-exposed active PWID in Vancouver, Canada stratified by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) non-suppression, 1996 – 2012

From: Incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active injection drug users with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA: a longitudinal analysis

Characteristic VL suppressed VL non-suppressed Odds ratio 95% CI2 p-value
153 (23.3) 504 (76.7)
n (%) n (%)
Incarceration3      
 No 227 (87.3) 312 (78.6) 1.00   
 Yes 33 (12.7) 85 (21.4) 1.87 1.21, 2.90 0.005
Age      
 Median (IQR) 45.3 (39.5 – 50.7) 37.9 (33.1 – 43.9) 0.98 0.98, 0.98 < 0.001
Gender      
 Male 191 (73.5) 238 (60.0) 1.00   
 Female 69 (26.5) 159 (40.0) 1.85 1.32, 2.60 < 0.001
Aboriginal ancestry      
 No 172 (66.2) 240 (60.5) 1.00   
 Yes 88 (33.8) 157 (39.5) 1.28 0.92, 1.77 0.161
Heroin injection      
 < Daily 230 (88.5) 293 (73.8) 1.00   
 ≥ Daily 30 (11.5) 104 (26.2) 2.72 1.75, 4.23 < 0.001
Cocaine injection      
 < Daily 227 (87.3) 289 (72.8) 1.00   
 ≥ Daily 33 (12.7) 108 (27.2) 2.57 1.68, 3.94 < 0.001
Crack cocaine use      
 < Daily 164 (63.1) 291 (73.3) 1.00   
 ≥ Daily 96 (36.9) 106 (26.7) 0.62 0.44, 0.87 0.007
Education      
 < High school diploma 136 (52.3) 252 (63.5) 1.00   
 ≥ High school diploma 124 (47.7) 145 (36.5) 0.63 0.46, 0.87 0.005
Homeless      
 No 243 (93.5) 352 (88.7) 1.00   
 Yes 17 (6.5) 45 (11.3) 1.83 1.02, 3.27 0.041
Sex work3      
 No 235 (90.4) 328 (82.6) 1.00   
 Yes 25 (9.6) 69 (17.4) 1.98 1.21, 3.22 0.006
HIV MD experience      
 ≥ 6 patients 223 (85.8) 320 (80.6) 1.00   
 < 6 patients 37 (14.2) 77 (19.4) 1.45 0.95, 2.22 0.093
PI in first ART regimen      
 No 160 (61.5) 238 (59.9) 1.00   
 Yes 100 (38.5) 150 (40.1) 1.07 0.78, 1.47 0.744
CD4+ cells (per 100/mm3)      
 Median (IQR) 3.6 (2.4 – 4.9) 2.6 (1.5 – 4.0) 0.95 0.94, 0.97 < 0.001
ART adherence      
 ≤ 95% 102 (39.2) 377 (95.0) 1.00   
 > 95% 158 (60.8) 20 (5.0) 0.03 0.02, 0.06 < 0.001
  1. 295% Confidence Interval (95% CI).
  2. 3Refers to 180 day period prior to baseline interview.