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Table 2 Microbiology grouped by HCAP, HAP, and VAP a

From: A comparison of microbiology and demographics among patients with healthcare-associated, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia: a retrospective analysis of 1184 patients from a large, international study

Microbiology HCAP HAP VAP
(n = 199) (n = 379) (n = 606)
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
Gram-positive pathogens 117 (58.8) 226 (59.6) 441 (72.8)
 MRSA 82 (41.2) 125 (33.0) 259 (42.7)
 MSSA 12 (6.0) 51 (13.5) 107 (17.7)
Pneumococcus 4 (2.0) 10 (2.6) 15 (2.5)
 Other Streptococcus spp. 7 (3.5) 15 (4.0) 18 (3.0)
Gram-negative pathogens 53 (26.6) 113 (29.8) 222 (36.6)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 22 (11.1) 28 (7.4) 57 (9.4)
Acinetobacter spp. 8 (4.0) 16 (4.2) 44 (7.3)
Haemophilus spp. 6 (3.0) 5 (1.3) 23 (3.8)
Moraxella catarrhalis 4 (2.0) 1 (0.3) 2 (0.3)
Klebsiella spp. 5 (2.5) 32 (8.4) 41 (6.8)
Escherichia coli 10 (5.0) 19 (5.0) 17 (2.8)
Enterobacter spp. 3 (1.5) 15 (4.0) 31 (5.1)
Proteus mirabilis 1 (0.5) 8 (2.1) 13 (2.1)
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 0 (0) 2 (0.5) 13 (2.1)
Polymicrobial 111 (55.8) 191 (50.4) 387 (63.9)
Culture negative 50 (25.1) 101 (26.6) 79 (13.0)
Bacteremia 28 (14.1) 49 (12.9) 103 (17.0)
  1. HAP, Hospital-acquired pneumonia; HCAP, Healthcare-associated pneumonia; MRSA, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MSSA, Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus; VAP, Ventilator-associated pneumonia.
  2. aMost commonly isolated pathogens reported (at least 2% in HCAP, HAP, or VAP).