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Table 2 Prevalence of bacterial and viral pathogens among HIV-positive and HIV-negative African-Caribbean women in Toronto

From: The epidemiology of sexually transmitted co-infections in HIV-positive and HIV-negative African-Caribbean women in Toronto

  HIV-positive HIV-negative p value
  Tested Positive Prevalence % (95% CIa) Tested Positive Prevalence % (95% CI)  
Chlamydia 123 0 0.0% (0.0-2.9% 286 11 3.8% (1.9-6.8%) 0.039b
Gonorrhea 124 0 0.0% (0.0-2.9%) 285 0 0.0% (0.0-1.3%) NS
Syphilis 126 1 0.79% (0.02-4.3%) 291 1 0.34% (0.01-1.9%) NS
Bacterial vaginosis 123 19 15.4% (9.6-23.1%) 283 49 17.3% (13.1-22.2%) NS
Abnormal vaginal flora 123 42 34.1% (25.8-43.2%) 283 84 29.7% (24.4-35.4%) NS
Trichomonas vaginalis 124 9 7.3% (3.4-13.3%) 286 13 4.5% (2.4-7.6%) NS
Yeast 123 9 7.3% (3.3-13.4%) 283 19 6.7% (4.1-10.3%) NS
HSV-1 123 111 90.2% (83.6-94.6%) 290 254 87.6% (83.2-91.2%) NS
HSV-2 124 107 86.3% (79.0-91.8%) 290 135 46.6% (40.7-52.5%) <0.0001
Cytomegalovirus 126 125 99.2% (95.7-100%) 291 274 94.2% (90.8-96.6%) 0.018
High risk HPV, vaginal 124 60 48.4% (39.3-57.5% 283 49 17.3% (12.9-21.7% <0.0001
HCV 126 5 4.0% (1.3-9.0%) 290 4 1.4% (0.38-3.5%) NS
HBV infectedc 126 6 4.8% (1.8-10.1%) 291 1 0.34% (0.01-1.9%) 0.004b
HBV everd 126 60 47.6% (38.7-56.7%) 283 60 21.2% (16.6-26.4%) <0.0001
HBV vaccination 109 72 66.1% (56.4-74.9%) 248 109 44.0% (37.7-50.4%) 0.0001
  1. a95% exact binomial confidence interval.
  2. bFisher’s Exact Test.
  3. cInfected with HBV: HBsAg, with or without other HBV markers.
  4. dEver infected with HBV: HBsAg, anti-HBc, or anti-HBs if not vaccinated for HBV.