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Table 3 Complications, treatment and outcome of IE episodes

From: Profile of infective endocarditis observed from 2003 - 2010 in a single center in Italy

  No. (%)  
Characteristic TOTAL Native valve Prosthetic valve p
(189 cases) (118 cases) (71 cases)
Complications     
  Embolizations* 83 (44%) 56 (47%) 27 (38%) 0.4
  Heart failure 49 (26%) 32 (27%) 17 (24%) 0.6
  Arrhythmias 40 (21%) 28 (24%) 12 (17%) 0.3
  Intracardiac abscess 15 (9%) 6 (5%) 9 (15%) 0.04
  Renal failure 12 (6%) 6 (5%) 6 (8%) 0.4
  Septic shock 8 (4%) 2 (2%) 6 (8%) 0.05
Medical treatment
  Monotherapy 18 (10%) 13 (11%) 5 (7%) 0.02
  Dual therapy 115 (62%) 78 (68%) 37 (53%)
  ≥three drug therapy 52 (28%) 24 (21%) 28 (40%)
Surgical treatment
  Medical and surgical 99 (52%) 65 (55%) 34 (47%) 0.3
  Multiple valve procedures 24 (24%) 18 (15%) 6 (8%) 0.2
Surgical treatment timing
  Emergency (≤48 h) 4 (4%) 3 (5%) 1 (3%) 0.4
  Urgent (>48 h and ≤7 days) 12 (12%) 9 (14%) 3 (9%)
  Elective (> 7 days) 83 (84%) 53 (81%) 30 (88%)
In-hospital mortality 32 (17%) 16 (14%) 16 (23%) 0.1
  Pre-operative 20 (63%) 11 (69%) 9 (56%) 0.8
  Intra-operative 2 (6%) 1 (6%) 1 (6%)
  Post-operative 10 (31%) 4 (25%) 6 (38%)
  1. *Embolizations: Stroke (35, 19%); Non-Stroke (48, 25%) [Pulmonary (21), Cutaneous (5); Upper/lower extremities (3); Myocardial infarction (1); Splenic (12); Bone (6)].