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Table 3 Univariate analysis and logistic regression for health care system delay

From: Delayed diagnosis and associated factors among new pulmonary tuberculosis patients diagnosed at the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in Porto Alegre, South Brazil: a prospective patient recruitment study

Characteristics Group 1 (≥18 days) Group 2 (<18 days)   Univariate analysis    Logistic regression  
    OR 95% CI p Adjusted OR 95% CI p
Age, years (mean ± SD) 43.8 ± 15.83 41.28 ± 15.57 0.99 0.97-1.01 0.321 0.98 0.96-1.01 0.081
Male sex, n (%) 47 (60.3) 43 (57.1) 1.06 0.77-1.76 0.839 1.16 0.53-2.4 0.720
White race, n (%) 48 (61.5) 40 (53.3) 1.18 0.85-1.64 0.388    
Current or former smoker 50 (34.1) 48 (64.0) 1.01 0.72-1.38     
Alcoholism, n (%) 31 (39.7) 22 (29.3) 1.24 0.92-1.69 0.324    
Drug use, n (%) 26 (33.3) 24 (32.0) 1.03 0.74-1.43 0.997    
Marijuana use, n (%) 16 (20.5) 13 (17.3) 1.10 0.76-1.60 0.768    
Cocaine use, n (%) 17 (21.8) 10 (13.3) 1.30 0.93-1.83 0.246    
Crack use, n (%) 18 (23.1) 17 (22.7) 1.01 0,70-1.46 0.999    
Symptoms, n (%) Cough 66 (84.6) 67 (89.3) 0.83 0.56-1.23 0.532    
Sputum production 43 (55.1) 55 (73.3) 0.69 0.51-0.93 0.029 0.45 0.20-1.01 0.052
Hemoptysis 12 (15.4) 13 (17.3) 0.93 0.60-1.45 0.555    
Fever 63 (80.8) 62 (82.7) 0.94 0.64-1.38 0.925    
Weight loss 65 (83.3) 52 (69.3) 1.54 0.97-2.45 0.064 2.76 1.14-6.71 0.025
Dyspnea 49 (62.8) 46 (61.3) 1.03 0.75-1.43 0.982    
Night sweats 58 (74.4) 44 (58.7) 1.45 0.99-2.12 0.059 1.74 0.77-3.93 0.184
Chest pain 36 (46.2) 34 (45.3) 1.01 0.74-1.39 0.999    
Fatigue 29 (37.2) 23 (30.7) 1.18 0.86-1.61 0.408    
Had consultation at the first health service sought, n (%) 72 (92.3) 74 (98.7) 0.58 0.41-0.81 0.135    
Chest x-ray performed, n (%) 65 (90.3) 69 (93.2) 0.94 0.69-1.28 0.202    
Previous TB, n (%) 7 (9.0) 17 (22.7) 0.53 0.28-1.01 0.035 0.50 0.15-1.66 0.256
Completed treatment, n (%) 4 (57.1) 10 (58.8) 0.95 0.27-3.35 0.999    
HIV positive, n (%) 42 (60.9) 35 (61.4) 0.99 0.72-1.37 0.999    
Radiographic pattern, n (%)         
Cavitation 12 (15.6) 22 (29.3) 0.64 0.40-1.04 0.066 0.45 0.19-1.08 0.074
Pleural effusion 4 (5.1) 2 (2.7) 1.32 0.74-2.39 0.682    
Milliary pattern 11 (14.1) 3 (4.0)    0.059 5.33 1.15-24.56 0.032
Consolidation 41 (52.6) 40 (53.3)    0.999    
Fibrotic changes 2 (2.6) 13 (17.3)    0.005 0.12 0.02- 0.64 0.013
Reticular infiltrates 28 (35.9) 21 (28.0)    0.382    
Forms of TB         
Pulmonary TB 75 (96.2) 74 (98.7)    0.620    
Pleuropulmonary TB 3 (3.8) 1 (1.3)    0.640    
Pulmonary + milliary TB 12 (15.4) 7 (9.3)    0.374    
  1. TB = Tuberculosis; SD = Standard deviation, n = Number of cases, HIV = Human immunodeficiency virus, OR = Odds ratio, 95% CI = 95% confidence interval.