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Table 3 Validation of putative superinfection cases

From: Superinfection with drug-resistant HIV is rare and does not contribute substantially to therapy failure in a large European cohort

Patient Origin/Follow-up Sex Risk Sub- Validated Result of Identified Estimated
    group types gene validation mixed-up date of
        sample event
Case1 -/Spain M HET B,* POL monophyletic 10/26/2000  
Case2 Spain/Spain M HET B POL ENV monophyletic 02/19/2004  
Case3 Spain/Spain F HET B,G POL ENV monophyletic1 04/19/2004  
Case4 Sweden/Sweden M MSM B POL ENV monophyletic 05/05/2004  
Case5 Eritrea/Sweden M NA C ENV monophyletic2   
Case6 -/Belgium M HET * ENV monophyletic   
Case7 -/Italy M MSM *,B POL monophyletic 01/25/2006  
Case8 Italy/Italy M VERT B POL ENV cluster of closely related samples   
Case9 -/Italy M NA B POL ENV monophyletic 19/07/1999  
Case10 -/Italy M NA B POL monophyletic 04/20/1998  
Case11 Italy/Italy F HET B POL monophyletic 09/10/1997  
Case12 Italy/Italy F IVDU B POL monophyletic 11/24/1998  
Case13 -/Italy F HET B POL ENV POL: non monophyletic ENV: non monophyletic but fails criteria (low support)   Jan 98- May 98
Case14 -/Italy M IVDU B POL ENV POL: non monophyletic ENV: non monophyletic but fails criteria (low support)   Nov 97- Nov 98
Control1 Spain/Spain M MSM * POL ENV monophyletic   
Control2 Spain/Spain M HET B POL ENV monophyletic   
Control3 -/Spain M HET * ENV monophyletic   
Control4 -/Belgium M HET CRF 02_AG ENV monophyletic   
  1. Results of the validation of 14 cases of putative superinfection and 4 controls. Samples where thawed, amplified and pol and env regions where sequenced as described in the Methods. Full circles indicate confirmed superinfection cases. Notes: 1the sample before the superinfection event was unavailable, an alternative was used; 2neither of the original samples were available and two alternatives were used. An asterisk (*) indicates that subtype could not be determined uniquely. Abbreviations: IVDU - intravenous drug users; HET - heterosexuals; MSM - men having sex with men; VERT - vertical transmission; NA - unknown; F - Female; M - Male.