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Table 1 Characteristics population-based studies reporting prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis for both men and women

From: Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review

Authors (publication year) [Reference] Country Men tested Women tested Response rate Sampling Test M Test F Invitation Geographic area
Valkengoed (2000)[31] Netherlands 1908 2902 M 33.0% F 51.0% General practices PCR urine PCR urine By mail Urban
Fenton (2001)[32] UK 1474 2055 Total 71.0% General community LCR urine LCR urine By mail General population
Obasi (2001)[33] Tanzania 4749 4686 Total 80% General community PCR urine PCR urine By interviewer Rural
Turner(2002)[34] USA 244 335 Total 79.5% General community LCR urine LCR urine By interviewer Urban
Miller (2004)[35] USA 6767 7555 Total 87.6% Schools LCR urine LCR urine By interviewer Urban and rural
Joyee (2004)[36] India 603 841 NS General community PCR urine PCR urine By interviewer Urban and rural
Latif (2004)[37] Australia 525 694 M 43.1% F 56.9% General community PCR FVU PCR VVS By interviewer Rural
Klavs (2004)[29] Slovenia 683 764 M 50.9% F 60.0% General community PCR urine PCR urine By interviewer General population
Bergen (2005)[38] Netherlands 2930 5453 M 33.0% F 47.0% General community PCR urine PCR urine By mail Urban and rural
Götz (2005)[39] Netherlands 1999 4304 Total 41.0% General community PCR urine PCR urine By mail Urban and rural
Macleod (2005)[40] UK 1930 2801 M 26.6% F 36.4% General practices PCR urine PCR urine VVS By mail Urban and rural
Low (2007)[19] UK 1396 1869 M 29.5% F 39.5% General practices PCR urine PCR VVS By mail Urban
Deblina Datta (2007)[41] USA 3096 3536 Total 83.0% General community LCR urine LCR urine By interviewer General population
Stein (2008)[42] USA 5074 5854 Total 88.6% Schools LCR urine LCR urine By interviewer NS
Adams (2008)[43] Barbados 190 207 M 79.0% F 86.0% General community PCR urine PCR urine By interviewer NS
Uusküla (2008)[44] Estonia 215 345 M 32.0% F 48.0% General community PCR FVU PCR VVS By mail Urban and rural
Beydoun (2010)[45] USA 2447 3164 NS General community NAAT urine NAAT urine By interviewer NS
Imai (2010)[46] Japan 2595 4003 Total 81.5% Schools PCR urine PCR urine By interviewer NS
Goulet (2010)[47] France 1135 1445 M 65.0% F 71.0% General community PCR urine PCR VVS By interviewer Urban and rural
Parish (2011)[48] China 1138 1235 Total 69.0% General community LCR urine LCR urine By interviewer Urban and rural
Desai (2011)[28] Germany 952 855 NS General community NAAT urine NAAT urine NS General population
Bozicevic (2011)[49] Croatia 123 151 M 27.9% F 37.5% General community PCR urine PCR urine By interviewer Urban and rural
Eggleston (2011)[50] USA 798 1322 M 17.7% F 26.5% General community NAAT urine NAAT urine By interviewer Urban
Gravningen (2012)[51] Norway 466 565 M 28.8% F 34.9% Schools PCR FVU PCR FVU Class-wise Rural
Klovstad (2012)[52] Norway 605 930 M 11.9% F 18.9% General community NAAT FVU NAAT FVU By mail Urban and rural
  1. NS: data not stated.
  2. PCR: polymerase chain reaction.
  3. LCR: ligase chain reaction.
  4. FVU: first voided urine.
  5. VVS: vulvovaginal swab.
  6. NAAT: nucleic acid amplification technique for example, DBProbeTec amplified DNA assay and APTIMA Combo2 assay.