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Table 4 Performance of individual warning signs in predicting DHF and SD in outpatients

From: Utility of warning signs in guiding admission and predicting severe disease in adult dengue

Warning sign DHF I-IV (N = 70) DHF II-IV (N = 43) SD (N = 13)
  Sn Sp PPV NPV Sn Sp PPV NPV Sn Sp PPV NPV
Abdominal pain (N = 88) 31 78 25 83 37 78 18 91 38 77 6 97
Persistent vomiting (N = 16) 7 96 31 82 9 96 25 89 23 96 19 97
Clinical fluid accumulation (N = 1) 1 100 100 82 0 100 0 89 0 100 0 97
Mucosal bleeding (N = 154) 61 64 28 88 100 67 28 100 62 60 5 98
Hepatomegaly (> 2 cm) (N = 2) 1 100 50 82 0 99 0 89 0 99 0 97
↑ in hematocrit; rapid ↓ of platelet (N = 10) 14 100 100 84 9 98 40 89 31 98 40 98
Any warning sign (N = 203) 79 52 27 91 100 52 21 100 100 48 6 100
Two warning signs (N = 61) 33 88 38 85 47 88 33 93 46 85 10 98
Three warning signs (N = 7) 6 99 57 82 9 99 57 89 8 98 14 97
  1. Numbers indicated are percentages.
  2. Sn sensitivity, Sp specificity, PPV Positive predictive value, NPV Negative predictive value.
  3. Combinations of two warning signs include: Abdominal pain and mucosal bleeding; Abdominal pain and persistent vomiting; Abdominal pain and hepatomegaly; Abdominal pain and clinical fluid accumulation; Mucosal bleeding and persistent vomiting; Mucosal bleeding and hepatomegaly; Mucosal bleeding and change in hematocrit level; Abdominal pain and change in hematocrit level.
  4. Combinations of three warning signs include: Abdominal pain, mucosal bleeding and persistent vomiting; Abdominal pain, mucosal bleeding and change in hematocrit level.
  5. WS Warning signs, DHF dengue hemorrhagic fever, SD severe dengue.