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Table 2 Multivariable regression models to estimate association of HIV indicator disease and late presentation

From: The potential impact of routine testing of individuals with HIV indicator diseases in order to prevent late HIV diagnosis

Variable Late presenters/Total (%) MLOR (95%CI)
Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
Age (per year old)   1.05 (1.04-1.07) 1.05 (1.04-1.07) 1.05 (1.04-1.06)
Gender     
 Male 676/1360 (49.7%) 1 1 1
 Female 214/375 (57%) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 0.9 (0.6-1.2) 0.9 (0.7-1.2)
Area of birth     
 Italy 617/1235 (50%) 1 1 1
 Not Italy 273/500 (54.6%) 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 1.5 (1.2-1.9)
HIV exposure category     
 Heterosexual 428/695 (61.6%) 1 1 1
 MSM 337/835 (40.3) 0.5 (0.4-0.7) 0.5 (0.4-0.7) 0.6 (0.4-0.7)
 IDU 70/136 (51.5%) 0.8 (0.5-1.2) 0.8 (0.5-1.2) 0.8 (0.5-1.1)
 Other/unreported 55/69 (79.7%) 1.2 (0.7-2.1) 1.1 (0.6-2.1) 1.2 (0.7-2.1)
Indicator Disease (ID)     
 No 678/1231 (55.1%) 1 - -
 Yes 212/504 (42.1%) 0.7 (0.5-0.8) - -
ID § and HIV test     
 No ID 678/1231(55%) - 1 -
 ID tested for HIV 129/358 (36%) - 0.5 (0.4-0.7) -
 ID not tested for HIV 71/123 (57.7%) - 1.2 (0.8-1.8) -
 Missing data 12/23 (52.2%) - 0.8 (0.3-1.9) -
Type of ID §     
 No ID 678/1231(55%) - - 1
 STI* 95/302 (31.5%) - - 0.5 (0.4-0.6)
 Hepatitis 82/161 (50.3%) - - 0.8 (0.6-1.2)
 Seb. dermatitis or TB** 35/41 (85%) - - 4.3 (1.7-10.6)
  1. statistically significant MLOR are shown in bold.
  2. § ID Indicator Diseases.
  3. * STI: sexually transmitted infections.
  4. ** TB: Tuberculosis.
  5. a: association of HIV indicator disease and late presentation adjusted for age, gender, area of birth, HIV exposure category and indicator disease.
  6. b: association of HIV indicator disease and late presentation adjusted for age, gender, area of birth, HIV exposure category and HIV testing after an HIV indicator disease.
  7. c: association of HIV indicator disease and late presentation adjusted for age, gender, area of birth, HIV exposure category and type of indicator disease.