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Table 2 Biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates

From: Biofilm formation by clinical isolates and the implications in chronic infections

  A. baumannii E. coli K. pneumoniae P. aeruginosa S. aureus
  n=53 n=39 n=54 n=36 n=23
% MDRa 86.7%; 46/53 79.5%; 31/39 100% 77.7%; 28/36 65.2%; 15/23
Antimicrobial %b %Biofilm Production % % Biofilm Production % % Biofilm Production % % Biofilm Production % % Biofilm Production
Aminoglycosides           
Amikacin R 67 65 10 33 20 83 25 67 ND ND
S 33 47 90 15 80 50 75 81 ND ND
Gentamicin R 90 89 47 14 93 79 39 75 3 100
S 10 67 53 19 7 71 61 59 97 90
Tobramycin R 70 81 53 19 53 81 23 90 ND ND
S 30 33 47 14 47 64 77 78 ND ND
Ansamycins            
Rifampin R ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0 92
S ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 100 78
Cephalosporins            
Cefazolin R ND ND 93 14 90 67 100 80 69 99
S ND ND 7 50 10 0 0 0 31 50
Cefepime R ND ND 77 9 93 82 63 79 ND ND
S ND ND 23 43 7 56 37 82 ND ND
Cefoxitin R ND ND 10 67 13 100 100 80 74 95
S ND ND 90 11 87 65 0 0 26 60
Cefotaxime R 80 63 ND ND 93 68 ND ND ND ND
S 20 50 ND ND 7 100 ND ND ND ND
Ceftazidime R 53 44 77 13 97 86 67 90 ND ND
S 47 93 23 29 3 33 33 60 ND ND
Ceftriaxone R ND ND 80 13 87 73 100 80 ND ND
S ND ND 20 33 13 69 0 0 ND ND
Carbepenems            
Imipenem R 67 85 0 0 0 0 75 86 ND ND
S 33 30 100 17 100 70 25 95 ND ND
Meropenem R 67 85 0 0 0 0 58 78 ND ND
S 33 30 100 17 100 70 42 82 ND ND
Flouroquinolones            
Ciprofloxacin R 90 85 83 12 63 79 75 80 ND ND
S 10 33 17 40 37 45 25 100 ND ND
Levofloxacin R 57 71 83 12 50 80 80 92 50 93
S 43 92 17 40 50 60 20 50 50 80
Penicillins            
Ampicillin R 100 67 97 17 100 70 100 80 100 100
  S 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Aztreonam R 100 67 73 9 97 90 73 73 ND ND
S 0 0 27 38 3 100 27 100 ND ND
Oxacillin R ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 83 92
S ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 17 60
Piperacillin R 93 71 13 0 30 78 67 75 ND ND
S 7 100 87 19 60 61 33 90 ND ND
Tetracyclines            
Tetracycline R 80 71 67 20 63 58 ND ND 20 83
  S 20 50 33 10 37 91 ND ND 80 88
Sulfonamides            
Trimeth-Sulfameth R 90 78 77 17 73 86 100 80 0 0
  S 10 50 23 14 27 50 0 0 1000 87
  1. a A multidrug-resistant (MDR) organism was defined as any extented spectrum-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria, or if resistant to all tested antimicrobials on 3 or more classes of antimicrobial agent.
  2. b %; indicates the percentage of isolates resistant (R) or sensitive (S) to each antimicrobial agent. Antimicrobial suceptibilities were determined using BD Phoenix™ automated microbiology system and are reflective of clinical breakpoints.