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Table 2 Characteristics of nosocomial and community-acquired episodes of spontaneous meningitis due to gram-negative bacilli*

From: Spontaneous gram-negative bacillary meningitis in adult patients: characteristics and outcome

Characteristics Hospital-acquired (n = 9) Community-acquired (n = 31) P value
Male sex 3/9 (33.3) 20/31 (64.5) 0.134
Age – years, median (IQR) 61 (23) 65 (18) 0.486
Comorbid conditions 7/9 (77.8) 22/31 (71.0) 1.000
Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 3 1/9 (11.1) 9/30 (30.0) 0.400
Distant focus of infection 4/9 (44.4) 27/31 (87.1) 0.016
• Urinary tract infection 2/9 (22.2) 11/31 (35.5) 0.690
• Otitis or sinusitis 0/9 (0.0) 4/31 (12.9) 0.557
• Pneumonia 1/9 (11.1) 1/31 (3.2) 0.404
Microbiology    
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5/9 (55.6) 5/31 (16.1) 0.049
Escherichia coli 2/9 (22.2) 13/31 (41.9) 0.494
Symptoms on presentation    
• Triad of fever, neck stiffness, and change in mental status 1/9 (11.1) 15/31 (48.4) 0.061
• Focal neurological deficits 3/9 (33.3) 9/31 (29.0) 1.000
• Seizures 3/9 (33.3) 2/31 (6.5) 0.065
• Systolic blood pressure – mm Hg (SD) 110 (58) 127 (30) 0.292
• Diastolic blood pressure – mm Hg (SD) 60 (38) 80 (19) 0.016
CSF examination    
• White-cell count, median (IQR) 2456 (4472) 1601 (2646) 0.689
 < 100/mm3 3/9 (33.3) 0/30 (0.0) 0.009
100–999/mm3 1/9 (11.1) 8/30 (26.7) 0.654
 > 999/mm3 5/9 (55.6) 22/30 (73.3) 0.416
• Protein – g/liter, median (IQR) 4.66 (7.42) 3.70 (3.67) 0.567
• CSF: blood glucose ratio, median (IQR) 0.10 (0.51) 0.13 (0.22) 0.731
Positive blood culture 7/9 (77.8) 20/31 (64.5) 0.690
Neurological complications 6/9 (66.7) 14/31 (45.2) 0.451
Systemic complications 7/9 (77.8) 17/31 (55.8) 0.272
Outcome    
• In-hospital mortality 6/9 (66.7) 15/31 (48.4) 0.457
  1. CI = confidence interval; IQR = interquartile range; SD = standard deviation.
  2. *Values are reported as no./no. evaluated (%), unless otherwise noted.