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Table 1 Poisson regression model showing adjusted and unadjusted associations between identified factors and first paradoxical reactions rates

From: Incidence, clinical spectrum, diagnostic features, treatment and predictors of paradoxical reactions during antibiotic treatment of Mycobacterium ulceransinfections

  Number (%) in cohort Number (%) experiencing a PR Follow-up
(years)
Rate per 100 person-years (95% CI) Crude rate ratio (95% CI) p-value* Adjusted rate ratio (95% CI) p-value#
Sex
Male 86 (55.1) 15 (17.4) 72.5 20.7 (12.5,34.3) 1 0.26 1 0.64
Female 70 (44.9) 17 (24.3) 55.0 30.8 (19.1,49.5) 1.48 (0.74,2.98) 0.83 (0.38,1.81)
Age (years)
0-<15 13 (8.3) 3 (23.1) 9.9 30.4 (9.8,94.2) 2.94 (0.74,11.76) 0.01 2.77 (0.67,11.38) 0.16
15-<60 62 (39.7) 6 (9.7) 58.1 10.3 (4.6,23.0) 1 1  
≥60 81 (51.9) 23 (28.4) 59.8 38.4 (25.5,57.9) 3.72 (1.51,9.14) 2.84 (1.12,7.17) 0.03
Lesion type
Ulcer 137 (87.8) 24 (17.5) 116.0 20.7 (13.9,30.9) 1 0.03 1  
Nodule 10 (6.4) 4 (40.0) 6.3 63.3 (23.7,168.6) 3.06 (1.06,8.81) 1.98 (0.57,6.91) 0.29
Oedematous 9 (5.8) 4 (44.4) 5.4 73.9 (27.7,196.8) 3.57 (1.24,10.29) 3.44 (1.11,10.70) 0.03
Lesion site
Upper limb 55 (35.3) 11 (20.0) 44.7 24.6 (13.9,44.4) 1    
Lower limb 99 (63.5) 21 (21.2) 80.3 25.9 (16.9,39.7) 1.05 (0.51,2.18) 0.60 - -
Torso 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) - - -    
Lesion position
Proximal 16 (10.3) 2 (12.5) 14.2 14.1 (3.5,56.5) 1 0.35 - -
Distal 140 (89.7) 30 (21.3) 113.6 26.4 (18.5, 37.8) 1.87 ( 0.45,7.82)    
Over a joint
No 91 (58.3) 17 (18.7) 76.2 22.5 (13.9,35.9) 1 0.45 - -
Yes 65 (41.7) 15 (23.1) 51.5 29.1 (17.6,48.3) 1.31 (0.65,2.61)    
Positive margins
No 36 (32.7) 4 (11.0) 32.5 12.3 (4.6,32.8) 1 0.03 - -
Yes 74 (67.3) 20 (27.0) 56.5 35.4 (22.8,54.8) 2.87 (0.98,8.41)
Any excision
No 42 (27.0) 6 (14.3) 36.5 16.5 (7.4, 36.6) 1 0.20 - -
Yes 114 (73.0) 26 (22.8) 91.3 28.5 (19.4,41.8) 1.72 (0.71,4.20)
Major excision
No 82 (52.6) 11 (13.4) 71.9 15.3 (8.5,27.6) 1 0.01 1 0.14
Yes 74 (47.4) 21 (28.4) 55.9 37.6 (24.5,57.6) 2.45 (1.18,5.09) 1.78 (0.82,3.87)
Diabetes
No 143 (91.7) 27 (18.9) 118.9 22.7 (15.6,33.1) 1 0.09 1 0.77
Yes 13 (8.3) 5 (38.5) 8.8 56.7 (23.6,136.2) 2.50 (0.96,6.49) 1.19 (0.37,3.89)
Immune suppression
No 145 (93.0) 28 (19.3) 120.0 23.3 (16.1,33.8) 1 0.18 - -
Yes 11 (7.1) 4 (36.4) 7.7 51.7 (19.4,137.6) 2.21 (0.78,6.31)
Rifampicin
No 9 (5.8) 2 (22.2) 7.4 26.9 (6.7,107.5) 1 0.92 - -
Yes 147 (94.2) 30 (20.4) 120.3 24.9 (17.4,35.7) 0.93 (0.22,3.88)
Ciprofloxacin
No 55 (35.3) 13 (23.6) 43.5 29.9 (17.4,51.5) 1 0.44 - -
Yes 101 (64.7) 19 (18.8) 84.3 22.5 (14.5,35.7) 0.75 (0.37,1.53)
Clarithromycin
No 108 (69.2) 24 (22.2) 87.1 27.6 (18.5,41.1) 1 0.40 - -
Yes 48 (30.8) 8 (16.7) 40.7 19.7 (9.8,39.3) 0.71 (0.32,1.59)
Ethambutol
No 145 (93.0) 28 (19.3) 120.1 23.3 (16.1,33.8) 1 0.17 - -
Yes 11 (7.1) 4 (36.4) 7.6 52.3 (19.6,139.5) 2.25 (0.79,6.40)
Amikacin
No 151 (96.8) 28 (18.5) 126.0 22.2 (15.3,32.2) 1 <0.001 1 <0.01
Yes 5 (3.2) 4 (80.0) 1.8 228.6 (85.8,609.2) 10.29 (3.61,29.33) 6.33 (2.09,19.18)
Moxifloxacin
No 151 (96.8) 30 (19.9) 124.6 24.1 (16.8,34.4) 1   -  
Yes 5 (3.2) 2 (40.0) 3.1 64.0 (16.0,255.8) 2.66 (0.64,11.12) 0.24   -
  1. CI confidence interval, PR paradoxical reaction, *likelihood ratio test, #Wald test.