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Table 3 Association of HIV/HCV group with individually elevated (>75th percentile) biomarkers

From: Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C, and inflammatory biomarkers in individuals with alcohol problems: a cross-sectional study

Biomarker elevated HIV/HCV group Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORa(95% CI)
Model B (N = 218) Undetectable 1 1
Interleukin-10 HIV mono-detectable 4.74* (1.36, 16.48) 2.95 (0.74, 11.85)
HCV mono-detectable 5.39* (1.39, 20.84) 5.51* (1.17, 25.84)
HIV/HCV detectable 9.22* (2.69, 31.55) 7.79* (1.90, 31.97)
Model C (N = 218) Undetectable 1 1
Tumor necrosis factor-α HIV mono-detectable 4.50* (1.29, 15.70) 4.44 (0.86, 22.82)
HCV mono-detectable 4.15* (1.04, 16.47) 4.45 (0.68, 29.02)
HIV/HCV detectable 8.50* (2.48, 29.16) 7.70* (1.42, 41.83)
Model D (N = 196) Undetectable 1 1
Interleukin-6 HIV mono-detectable 1.33 (0.49, 3.66) 0.57 (0.15, 2.16)
HCV mono-detectable 5.17* (1.79, 14.94) 2.99 (0.75, 11.98)
HIV/HCV detectable 3.33* (1.28, 8.70) 1.47 (0.40, 5.35)
Model E (N = 218) Undetectable 1 1
Cystatin-C HIV mono-detectable 1.50 (0.56, 4.01) 0.49 (0.12, 2.02)
HCV mono-detectable 2.22 (0.73, 6.73) 0.40 (0.07, 2.34)
HIV/HCV detectable 5.04* (1.98, 12.85) 1.60 (0.39, 6.57)
Model F (N = 218) Undetectable 1 1
C-reactive protein HIV mono-detectable 1.16 (0.54, 2.51) 0.99 (0.35, 2.84)
HCV mono-detectable 1.09 (0.42, 2.80) 1.41 (0.41, 4.90)
HIV/HCV detectable 0.86 (0.39, 1.90) 0.69 (0.22, 2.14)
Model G (N = 210) Undetectable 1 1
Serum amyloid A HIV mono-detectable 0.81 (0.36, 1.80) 0.58 (0.19, 1.79)
HCV mono-detectable 0.69 (0.25, 1.89) 0.38 (0.09, 1.66)
HIV/HCV detectable 1.01 (0.46, 2.22) 0.72 (0.22, 2.31)
Model H (N = 218) Undetectable 1 1
Interferon-γ HIV mono-detectable 1.40 (0.52, 3.78) 1.65 (0.46, 5.87)
HCV mono-detectable 1.68 (0.53, 5.28) 2.63 (0.59, 11.76)
HIV/HCV detectable 0.92 (0.32, 2.60) 1.03 (0.25, 4.30)
Model I (N = 218) Undetectable 1 1
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 HIV mono-detectable 1.67 (0.72, 3.84) 2.96 (0.80, 10.95)
HCV mono-detectable 1.38 (0.50, 3.79) 3.71 (0.83, 16.53)
HIV/HCV detectable 1.37 (0.59, 3.21) 3.48 (0.88, 13.69)
  1. aModels adjusted for age, gender, FIB-4 score, at-risk drinking, CD4 count, ART use, and self-reported comorbidity. See Additional file 1: Table S1 for odds ratios for covariates.
  2. *p-value < 0.05.
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