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Table 3 Risk factors for disease in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: child and household characteristics (n = 102)

From: Risk factors for infection and disease in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a cross-sectional study

Variable   Total Disease OR p-value Age-adjusted OR p-value
   (n = 102) (row %) (95% CI)   (95% CI)  
    (n = 15)     
Age (n = 100) <1 year 15 4 (26.7) 1 0.28 n/a n/a
1–2 years 15 3 (20.0) 0.69 (0.12–3.79)
2–3 years 25 6 (24.0) 0.87 (0.20–3.77)
3–4 years 27 2 (7.4) 0.22 (0.03–1.38) 0.011
4–5 years 18 0 (0) -
Gender Female 46 11 (23.9) 1 0.02 1 0.04
Male 56 4 (7.1) 0.24 (0.72–0.83) 0.29 (0.08–1.00)
Ethnicity Xhosa 30 7 (23.3) 1 0.13   
Colored 70 8 (11.4) 0.42 (0.14–1.33)
Previous TB treatment No 86 14 (16.3) 1 0.32   
Yes 16 1 (6.3) 0.34 (0.04–2.81)
HIV status (n = 99) Negative 96 13 (13.5) 1 0.04 1 0.01
Positive 3 2 (66.7) 12.8 (1.07–151.1) 25.3 (1.63–393)
Weight-for-age z-score (n = 97) More than −1 60 10 (16.7) 1 0.19   
−1 to −2 26 1 (3.8) 0.20 (0.02–1.65)
Less than −2 11 1 (9.1) 0.50 (0.06–4.45)
BCG scar visible (n = 101) No 14 2 (14.3) 1 0.95   
Yes 87 13 (14.9) 1.05 (0.21–5.27)
Type of residence (n = 98) Tin shack 8 1 (12.5) 1 0.84   
Brick house 79 12 (15.2) 1.25 (0.14–11.1)
Wendy house 11 1 (9.1) 0.70 (0.04–13.2)
Number of rooms in house 1-2 28 2 (7.1)   0.04 1.39 (1.02–1.91) 0.041
3-4 42 4 (9.5) 1.37 (0.23–8.03)
>4 32 9 (28.1) 5.09 (1.00–26.0) 0.021
Number of people living in house ≤5 people 47 5 (10.6) 1 0.29   
>5 people 55 10 (18.2) 1.87 (0.59–5.91)
Density of people living in house ≤2 people per room 72 12 (16.7) 1 0.39   
>2 people per room 30 3 (10) 0.56 (0.14–2.16)
Water source (n = 100) House tap 84 12 (14.3) 1 0.65   
No house tap 16 3 (18.8) 1.38 (0.34–5.60)
Toilet Flush toilet in house 79 12 (15.2) 1 0.80   
Other 23 3 (13.0) 0.84 (0.21–3.26)
  1. 1Test of trend, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval.