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Table 2 Risk factors for infection in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: source case and exposure characteristics (n = 228)

From: Risk factors for infection and disease in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a cross-sectional study

Variable   Total Infected OR p-value AOR p-value1
(n = 228) (row %) (95% CI) (95% CI)1
(n = 102)
Age of source case (n = 219) 16–25 55 31 (56.4) 1 0.06 0.67 (0.45–1.00) 0.052
26–35 86 40 (46.5) 0.67 (0.34–1.33)
0.022
>35 78 28 (35.9) 0.43 (0.21–0.88)
Gender of source case (n = 226) Female 138 62 (44.9) 1 0.93   
Male 88 39 (43.3) 0.98 (0.57–1.67)
Smoking status of source case (n = 225) Non-smoker 130 52 (40.0) 1 0.09   
Smoker 95 49 (51.6) 1.60 (0.94–2.73)
Alcohol use by source case (n = 225)3 Never drinks 166 65 (39.2) 1 0.004 1 0.007
Drinks alcohol 59 36 (61.0) 2.43 (1.32–4.47) 2.59 (1.29–5.22)
Smear result of source case (n = 224) Negative 28 9 (32.1) 1 0.17   
Positive 196 90 (45.9) 1.79 (0.77–4.16)
Smear grade of source case (n = 217) Negative 28 9 (32.1) 1 0.13   
Scanty 18 8 (44.4) 1.69 (0.50–5.73)
1+ 28 15 (53.6) 2.44 (0.82–7.22)
2+ 107 44 (41.1) 1.47 (0.61–3.56)
3+ 36 22 (61.1) 3.31 (1.17–9.37)
HIV status of source case (n = 224) Negative 150 79 (52.7) 1 <0.001 1 0.06
Positive 74 20 (27.0) 0.33 (0.18–0.61) 0.48 (0.22–1.04)
CD4 count of source case if HIV-positive (n = 71) <200 33 7 (21.2) 1 0.46   
>200 38 11 (28.9) 1.51 (0.50–4.56)
Relationship of source case to child Parents 100 38 (38.0) 1 0.34   
Grandparent 31 15 (48.4) 1.53 (0.68–3.45)
Uncle or aunt 66 33 (50.0) 1.63 (0.87–3.06)
Other 31 16 (51.6) 1.74 (0.77–3.92)
Duration of exposure between source case and child Less than a month 30 13 (43.3) 1 0.62   
One month to six months 92 38 (41.3) 0.92 (0.40–2.11)
More than six months 106 51 (48.1) 1.21 (0.54–2.74)
Primary caregiver to child Index case 55 21 (38.2) 1 0.26   
Not index case 173 81 (46.8) 1.43 (0.77–2.65)
Frequency of contact between source case and child Daily 213 93 (43.7) 1 0.23   
Less frequently 15 9 (60.0) 1.94 (0.67–5.63)
Intensity of contact between child and source case Sleeps in the same bed 57 25 (43.9) 1 0.67   
Sleeps in the same room 34 13 (38.2) 0.79 (0.33–1.89)
Sleeps in the same house 101 45 (44.6) 1.03 (0.53–1.98)
Sleeps in a different house 36 19 (52.8) 1.43 (0.62–3.31)
  1. 1Adjusted for ethnicity, age of child, previous TB in the child, age of source case, alcohol use in source case and HIV status of source case, 2Test of trend, 3Regular alcohol use in source case as reported by the parent or legal guardian of the child, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval.