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Table 1 Risk factors for infection in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: child and household characteristics (n = 228)

From: Risk factors for infection and disease in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a cross-sectional study

Variable   Total Infected Unadjusted OR p-value AOR p-value1
(n = 228) (row %) (95% CI) (95% CI)1
(n = 102)
Age of child (n = 224) <1 year 53 15 (28.3) 1 0.05 1.43 (1.13–1.91) 0.0022
1–2 years 36 15 (41.7) 1.81 (0.74–4.42)
2–3 years 51 25 (49.0) 2.44 (1.08–5.48) 0.0072
3–4 years 48 27 (56.3) 3.26 (1.43–7.44)
4–5 years 36 18 (50.0) 2.53 (1.05–6.14)
Gender (n = 227) Female 109 46 (42.2) 1 0.43   
Male 118 56 (47.5) 1.24 (0.73–2.09)
Ethnicity Xhosa 101 30 (29.7) 1 <0.001 1 0.01
Colored 125 70 (56.0) 3.01 (1.69–5.36) 2.51 (1.22–5.17)
Previous TB treatment No 207 86 (41.5) 1 0.002 1 0.08
Yes 21 16 (76.2) 4.50 (1.59–12.8) 2.76 (0.84–9.12)
HIV status (n = 217) Negative 209 96 (45.9) 1.0 0.64   
Positive 8 3 (37.5) 0.71 (0.16–3.03)
Weight-for-age z-score (n = 218) More than −1 138 60 (43.5) 1 0.14   
−1 to −2 47 26 (55.3) 1.61 (0.83–3.13)
Less than −2 33 11 (33.3) 0.65 (0.29–1.44)
BCG scar visible (n = 222) No 40 14 (35.0) 1 0.14   
Yes 182 87 (47.8) 1.70 (0.83–3.47)
Type of residence (n = 217) Tin shack 33 8 (24.2) 1 0.007   
Brick House 168 79 (47.0) 2.77 (1.18–6.50)
Wendy House 16 11 (68.8) 6.87 (1.83–25.8)
Number of rooms in house 1–2 61 28 (45.9) 1 0.58   
3–4 102 42 (41.2) 0.83 (0.44–1.56)
>4 65 32 (49.2) 1.14 (0.57–2.30)
Number of people living in house ≤5 people 109 47 (43.1) 1 0.64   
>5 people 119 55 (46.2) 1.13 (0.67–1.91)
Density of people living in house ≤2 people per room 153 72 (47.1) 1 0.31   
>2 people per room 75 30 (40.0) 0.75 (0.43–1.31)
Water source (n = 225) Piped water in residence 176 84 (47.7) 1 0.06   
Piped water from public source 49 16 (32.7) 0.53 (0.27–1.03)
Toilet Flush toilet in house 163 79 (48.5) 1 0.07   
Other 65 23 (35.4) 0.58 (0.32–1.05)
  1. 1Adjusted for ethnicity, age of child, previous TB in the child, age of source case, alcohol use in source case and HIV status of source case, 2Test for trend, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval.