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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with HZ infection

From: Incidence and risk factors of herpes zoster among hiv-positive patients in the german competence network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet): a cohort study analysis

Variable Hazard ratios(95%CI)in univariate1models P-value Hazard ratios(95%CI)in one multivariate model P-value
Male (versus female) 2 0.952 (0.703, 1.290) 0.752 0.949 (0.697, 1.291) 0.739
Age (1 year change) 1.002 (0.991, 1.013) 0.728 1.002 (0.991, 1.013) 0.758
MSM (versus no MSM) 1.145 (0.905, 1.448) 0.260 (Not included)  
ART naïve, time on ART:    (Not included)  
  ART-experienced 0.640 (0.455, 0.902) 0.011*   
  ART-naivety uncertain 0.926 (0.640, 1.339) 0.682   
  Time on ART 0.990 (0.897, 1.093) 0.841   
  (1 year change)     
  No ART (reference) 1.000   
ART naïve, time on ART classified:    (Not included)  
  ART-naivety uncertain 0.940 (0.650-1.360) 0.743   
  ART-experienced < 1year 0.901 (0.631-1.287) 0.567   
  Time on ART 1-<2 years 0.488 (0.303-0.786) 0.003*   
  Time on ART 2-<3 years 0.379 (0.219-0.655) 0.001*   
  Time on ART 3-<4 years 0.469 (0.265-0.828) 0.009*   
  Time on ART > 4- years 0.635 (0.364-1.108) 0.110   
  No ART (reference) 1.000   
ART regimen, specific  
  NNRTI-regimen 0.557 (0.396, 0.783) 0.001* 0.530 (0.375, 0.748) <0.001*
  PI-regimen 0.703 (0.512, 0.965) 0.029* 0.624 (0.451, 0.862) 0.004*
  Regimen with other 0.717 (0.469, 1.095) 0.123 0.729 (0.469, 1.131) 0.158
  Drugs/combinations  
  Treatment interruption 1.153 (0.716, 1.859) 0.558 1.108 (0.686, 1.789) 0.675
  No ART (reference) 1.000 1.000
CD4-rise (of 100 cells/μl) 0.939 (0.898, 0.983) 0.006* 0.918 (0.875, 0.963) 0.001*
Immunosuppressive medication (yes versus no) 1.733 (1.060, 2.832) 0.028* 1.510 (0.921, 2.477) 0.103
Retrospective documentation (yes versus no) 0.575 (0.452, 0.730) <0.001* 0.582 (0.455, 0.745) <0.001*
  1. Abbreviations: ART: anti-retroviral therapy; NNRTI: non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor; PI: protease inhibitor; HZ: Herpes zoster; MSM: men who have sex with men.
  2. 1 For classified variables hazard ratios for each class were estimated in these “univariate” models; 2 two patients with missing gender were excluded from the models including male as independent variable. No other patients were excluded from the model estimations; * HR differed significantly (p<0.05) from 1 (corresponding to reference for classified variables).