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Table 1 Univariable analysis for risk factors associated with persistent Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia (cases) vs. non-persistent Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia (controls)

From: Can a routine follow-up blood culture be justified in Klebsiella pneumoniaebacteremia? a retrospective case–control study

Variables Cases (n = 62) Controls (n = 186) OR (95% CI) P
Age (± SD) 63.77 (± 14.58) 63.58 (± 14.34)   
Male sex 45 (72.6) 135 (72.6)   
Urinary tract infection 7 (11.3) 20 (10.8) 1.05 (0.43-2.58) 0.908
Intra-abdominal infection 12 (19.4) 22 (11.8) 1.82 (0.83-4.00) 0.136
Biliary tract infection 13 (21.0) 53 (28.5) 0.65 (.032-1.32) 0.236
Liver abscess 8 (12.9) 31 (16.7) 0.73 (0.31-1.72) 0.469
Pneumonia 8 (12.9) 18 (9.7) 1.36 (0.57-3.20) 0.487
Primary bacteremia 9 (14.5) 34 (18.3) 0.73 (0.31-1.72) 0.474
Central venous catheter related infection 2 (3.2) 4 (2.2) 1.50 (0.28-8.19) 0.640
Charlson’s CWI score (± SD) 6.29 (± 3.05) 5.52 (± 2.94) 1.14 (1.01-1.28) 0.037
ICU admission 18 (29.0) 30 (16.1) 2.12 (1.08-4.16) 0.029
Presentation with septic shock 22 (35.5) 53 (28.5) 1.35 (0.75-2.44) 0.316
APACHE-II score (± SD) 18.97 (± 9.28) 17.09 (± 8.16) 1.03 (0.99-1.06) 0.140
Pitt bacteremia score (± SD) 2.45 (± 2.67) 2.17 (± 2.45) 1.04 (0.94-1.16) 0.452
Nosocomial infection 34 (54.8) 55 (29.6) 2.96 (1.61-5.43) <0.001
Previous antibiotic use ≤ 1 year 37 (59.7) 95 (51.1) 1.42 (0.79-2.54) 0.240
Immunosuppressive therapy ≤ 1 year 5 (8.1) 4 (2.2) 4.46 (1.05-18.95) 0.043
History of solid organ transplantation 4 (6.5) 2 (1.1) 10.18 (1.11-93.02) 0.040
Invasive procedure ≤ 72 hours before initial BC 20 (32.3) 30 (16.1) 2.56 (1.29-5.07) 0.007
Neutropenia ≤ 72 hours before initial BC 11 (17.7) 31 (16.7) 1.08 (0.50-2.33) 0.843
Presence of metastatic infection 5 (8.1) 9 (4.8) 1.67 (0.56-4.97) 0.360
Inappropriate drainage 11 (17.7) 20 (10.8) 1.81 (0.80-4.07) 0.154
Fever on the 2 nd day after initial BC 38 (61.3) 46 (24.7) 5.18 (2.64-10.16) <0.001
Leukocytosis on the 2nd day after initial BC 23 (37.1) 60 (32.3) 1.22 (0.68-2.19) 0.499
Lack of CRP decrease on the 2 nd day after initial BC 26 (41.9) 43 (23.1) 2.38 (1.29-4.39) 0.010
Unfavorable treatment response on the 2 nd day after initial BC 27 (43.5) 30 (16.1) 4.69 (2.27-9.69) <0.001
ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia 28 (45.2) 31 (16.7) 3.99 (2.09-7.63) <0.001
Inappropriate empirical antibiotic use 22 (35.5) 24 (12.9) 4.02 (1.95-8.31) <0.001
Length of time to empirical antibiotic administration from initial BC (minute, ± SD) 182.8 (± 221.3) 228.4 (± 434.8) 1.00 (0.99-1.00) 0.430
In-hospital mortality 19 (30.6) 34 (18.3) 1.96 (1.02-3.78) 0.044
Length of hospital stay (day, ± SD) 45.1 (± 43.0) 38.6 (± 74.9) 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.524
  1. Data are no. (%) of patients, unless otherwise indicated.
  2. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; SD, standard deviation; CWI, comorbidity weighted index; ICU, intensive care unit; APACHE, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; BC, blood culture; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESBL, extended-spectrum β -lactamase.