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Table 4 Predictive factors for in-hospital death within 14 days afteradmission

From: Age-related differences in symptoms, diagnosis and prognosis of bacteremia

  Alive at 14 days(608 patients;% within thisgroup) Patients that died within 14 days(72 patients;%within this group) Bivariate analyses OR(95% CI) Multivariate analysis; full main effectsmodel*OR(95%CI)
Age ≥ 65 years 386 (63.5) 66 (91.7) 6.33 (2.70 - 14.83) 15.02 (3.68 - 61.29)
Male gender 246 (40.5) 43 (59.7) 2.18 (1.33 - 3.59) 1.93 (1.002 - 3.70)
S. pneumoniae 196 (32.2) 34 (47.2) 1.88 (1.15 - 3.08) 2.79 (1.43 - 5.46)
Comorbid illnesses ≥ 1 355 (58.1) 59 (81.9) 3.27 (1.76 – 6.09) 2.61 (1.11 - 6.14)
Immunmodulating and other medication     
  Warfarin 51 (8.5) 5 (7.0) 0.82 (0.32 - 2.12)  
  Corticosteroids1 on a daily basis 28 (4.7) 6 (8.5) 1.89 (0.75 - 4.73)  
  Cytostatic treatment within last 14 days 5 (0.8) 2 (2.8) 3.46 (0.66 - 18.15)  
  Immunosuppressive drugs 6 (1.0) 1 (1.4) 1.42 (0.17 - 11.94)  
Number of symptoms     
  Number of symptoms ≥ 5 69 (11.4) 8 (11.3) 0.99 (0.45 – 2.15)  
  “Classical symptoms”2≥ 3 236 (39.0) 17 (23.9) 0.49 (0.28 – 0.87)  
  “Atypical symptoms”3 ≥1 296 (48.4) 44 (61.1) 1.67 (1.02 – 2.76)  
Prehospital tentative diagnosis     
Infection 303 (49.6) 28 (38.9) 0.65 (0.39 – 1.07)  
Non-specifica 81 (13.3) 8 (11.1) 0.82 (0.38 – 1.77)  
Site of infection     
  Urinary tractus 241 (39.6) 14 (19.4) 0.37 (0.20 - 0.67)  
  Lower respiratory tractus 193 (31.7) 35 (48.6) 2.03 (1.24 - 3.33)  
  Othersb 95 (15.6%) 12 (16.7%) 1.08 (0.56 – 2.08)  
  Inconclusive 79 (13.0) 11 (15.3) 1.21 (0.61 - 2.39)  
Local immunocompromizing condition (at site of infection)     
Significant anatomical or physiological abnormality 206 (38.9) 17 (27.9) 0.61 (0.34 - 1.09)  
  Surgical procedure performed within 14 days priorto admittance 54 (8.9) 1 (1.4) 0.15 (0.02 - 1.11)  
Signs of infection in the emergency department     
  Fever (≥ 38.5°C) 402 (67.2) 36 (52.9) 0.55 (0.33 - 0.91) 0.46 (0.24 - 0.89)
  Hypothermia (< 36 ° C) 7 (1.2) 3 (4.2) 3.90 (0.98 – 15.44)  
  Tachycardia 383 (63.6) 44 (63.8) 1.01 (0.60 – 1.69)  
  Tachypnoe and/or hyperventilation 215 (35.3) 40 (55.6) 2.29 (1.40 - 3.75)  
  Leukocytosis (≥ 15000/μl) 255 (41.9) 25 (35.2) 0.75 (0.45 – 1.26)  
  Leukopenia (< 3000/μl) 21 (3.5) 16 (22.5) 8.13 (4.01 - 16.49) 4.62 (1.88 - 11.37)
  CRP ≥ 80 mg/L 457 (75.2) 57 (79.2) 1.26 (0.69 – 2.28)  
  CRP ≥ 200 mg/L 280 (46.1) 44 (61.1) 1.84 (1.12 – 3.04)  
  Decline in general health 244 (40.2) 45 (62.5) 2.48 (1.50 - 4.10)  
  New-onset atrial fibrillation 84 (14.0) 20 (28.2) 2.41 (1.37 - 4.25)  
Number of failing organs within one day after admission - - 3.25 (2.48 - 4.26) 3.06 (2.2 - 4.27)
  1. OR = odds ratio, CI = confidence interval.1Equivalent toprednisolone ≥ 10 mg per day2“Classical symptoms”: fever/chills, localizedpain, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, cough, dyspnea, expectoration, urgency,painful voiding, hematuria; skin rash and coma/seizures,3“Atypical symptoms”: Malaise, falls, dizziness,syncope, unsteadiness, immobility, acute urinary or fecal incontinence,paresis/speaking difficulties, acute confusional stateaincluding delirium and acute deterioration in the ability toperform daily tasks bgastrointestinal tract, liver, pancreasand biliary tract.
  2. *Interaction analyses indicated that high age significantly increased theeffect of type of bacterium on hospital mortality (results notshown).