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Table 1 Descriptive data and clinical presentation by 3 age groups

From: Age-related differences in symptoms, diagnosis and prognosis of bacteremia

   Age groups (% within age group)  
  Total material (680 patients) < 65 years
(228 patients)
65-84 years
(334 patients)
≥ 85 years
(118 patients)
Overall p-value
Age in years; median (IQR) 75 (57.5 - 82) 50.5 (38–58) 78 (73–81) 88 (86–91)  
Gender; male 289 (42.5%) 93 (40.8%) 160 (47.9%) 36 (30.5%) 0.004
Bacteraemia caused by E. coli 450 (66.2%) 131 (57.5%) 240 (71.9%) 79 (66.9%) 0.002
Bacteremia caused by S. pneumoniae 230 (33.8%) 97 (42.5%) 94 (28.1%)* 39 (33.1%)  
Comorbidity      
  Number of comorbid conditions1; median(IQR) 1 (0–2) 0 (0–1) 1 (0–2)* 1 (1–2)* < 0.001
  Aftrial fibrrillation (chronic or paroxystic) 75 (11.2%) 0 47 (14.2)* 28 (24.3)* < 0.001
  Ischemic heart disease 145 (21.6%) 13 (5.8%) 91 (27.5%)* 41 (35.7%)* < 0.001
  Congestive heart failure 91 (13.5%) 6 (2.7%) 55 (16.6%)* 30 (26.1%)* < 0.001
  Hypertension 151 (22.5%) 25 (11.1%) 91 (27.5%)* 35 (30.4%)* < 0.001
  Cerebrovascular disorder 93 (13.8%) 11 (4.9%) 59 (17.8%)* 23 (20.0%)* < 0.001
  Chronic obstructive lung disease 71 (10.6%) 15 (6.6%) 50 (15.1%)* 6 (5.2%) 0.001
  Alcohol abuse 46 (6.8%) 24 (10.6%) 21 (6.3%) 1 (0.9%)* 0.003
  Malignant disease (solid cancer, leukemia orlymphoma) 45 (6.7%) 16 (7.1%) 24 (7.3%) 5 (4.3%) 0.540
  Chronic renal failure 21 (3.1%) 6 (2.7%) 12 (3.6%) 3 (2.6%) 0.763
  Diabetes mellitus 82 (12.2%) 20 (8.8%) 49 (14.8%)* 13 (11.3%) 0.103
Tentative diagnosis by admitting physician:      
  Infection 331 (48.7%) 132 (57.9%) 143 (42.8%)* 56 (47.5%) 0.002
  Non-specific2 89 (13.1%) 7 (3.1%) 59 (17.7%)* 23 (19.5%)* < 0.001
  Organ focused 158 (23.2) 56 (24.6%) 78 (23.4%) 24 (20.3%) 0.676
Symptoms on infection      
  Total number of reported symptoms; median (IQR) 3 (2–4) 3 (2–4) 3 (2–4) 3 (2–3) 0.351
  “Classical symptoms”3≥ 3 253 (37.4%) 110 (48.7%) 108 (32.5%)* 35 (29.7%)* < 0.001
  Zero ”classical symptoms” 57 (8.4%) 7 (3.1%) 36 (10.8%)* 14 (11.9%)* 0.002
  “Atypical symptoms”4 ≥1 337 (49.6%) 82 (36.0%) 180 (53.9%)* 75 (63.6%)* < 0.001
Signs of infection at admission      
  Decline in general health 289 (42.6%) 81 (35.5%) 152 (45.6%)* 56 (47.5%)* 0.029
  Leukocytosis (≥ 15000/μl) 280 (41.2%) 98 (43.0%) 129 (38.6%) 53 (45.3%) 0.363
  Leukopenia (< 3000/μl) 37 (5.4%) 8 (3.5%) 24 (7.2%) 5 (4.3%) 0.140
C-reactive protein (CRP)      
      CRP median (IQR);mg/L 191 (83–311) 222 (92 -351) 179 (72-266)* 180 (94-317) 0.022
      CRP ≥ 80 mg/L 514 (75.6%) 175 (76.8%) 245 (73.4%) 94 (79.7%) 0.344
      CRP ≥ 200mg/L 324 (47.6%) 123 (53.9%) 147 (44.0%) 54 (45.8%) 0.062
  Fever (≥ 38.5°C) 438 (65.8%) 154 (69.1%) 208 (64.0%) 76 (64.4%) 0.445
  Hypothermia (< 36°C) 10 (1.5%) 7 (3.1%) 1 (0.3%)* 2 (1.7%) 0.027
      Median number of SIRScriteria (IQR) 3 (2–3) 3 (2–3) 2 (2–3) 2 (2–3) 0.099
      No. of patients withSIRS ≥ 3 343 (50.4%) 127 (55.7%) 160 (47.9%) 56 (47.5%) 0.149
      No. of patients withSIRS ≥ 2 563 (82.8%) 198 (86.8%) 270 (80.8%) 95 (80.5%) 0.139
New-onset atrial fibrillation 104 (15.5%) 11 (4.9%) 72 (21.8%)* 21 (18.3%)* < 0.001
  1. 1 Comorbid conditions: Malignant disease, alcoholism,diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, heart failure. 2Non-specific tentative diagnoses: acute deterioration of performingdaily tasks, reduced general condition, confusion, dizziness, falls,fainting, question of cerebral infarction. 3 “Typicalsymptoms”: fever/chills, localized pain, nausea/vomiting,diarrhoea, cough, dyspnoea, expectoration, signs of urinary tractinfection (UTI) such as urgency, pyuria, haematuria; skin rash, coma,seizures. 4 “Atypical symptoms”: Malaise,fall/dizziness/syncope/unsteadiness, immobility, acute incontinence ofurine or faeces, paresis, speaking difficulties, confusion.*Significantly different from the age group < 65, whichwas treated as reference group.