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Table 5 Association of socio-demographic and behavioural variables with acquiring HIV among women during the follow-up period using multiple logistic regression

From: HIV incidence from the first population-based cohort study in India

Variablea Category Number (% of total) Number (%) who acquired HIV Adjusted oddsbof acquiring HIV (95% CI) Adjusted oddscof acquiring HIV (95% CI)
Socio-demographic      
Age (years) 20-29 1317 (30.6) 5 (0.38) 1.0  
30-39 1342 (31.2) 12 (0.89) 2.2 (0.8–6.5)  
40-49 1168 (27.1) 5 (0.43) 0.9 (0.2–3.4)  
50-55 477 (11.1) 3 (0.63) 1.0 (0.2–4.5)  
Education Schooling 2390 (56.6) 12 (0.50) 1.0  
No Schooling 1829 (43.4) 13 (0.71) 0.7 (0.3–1.7)  
Marital status Never married / Currently married / Cohabiting 3704 (87.8) 14 (0.38) 1.0 1.0
Previously married 515 (12.2) 11 (2.14) 5.3 (2.2–12.6) 3.7 (1.3–10.2)
Standard of living indexd Quartile IV 1034 (24.1) 1 (0.10) 1.0 1.0
Quartile III 1099 (25.6) 3 (0.27) 2.6 (0.3–25.2) 2.4 (0.2–24.0)
Quartile II 1106 (25.8) 10 (0.90) 7.6 (0.9–62.0)) 7.1 (0.9–57.0)
Quartile I 1053 (24.5) 11 (1.04) 7.9 (0.9–65.7) 6.5 (0.8–52.6)
Place of residence at baseline Rural 2289 (53.2) 16 (0.70) 1.0  
Urban 2015 (46.8) 9 (0.45) 0.6 (0.3–1.6)  
Residence relocation Urban to rural 69 (1.6) 1 (1.5) 2.4 (0.3–20.4)  
  All others 4011 (98.4) 24 (0.6) 1.0  
Occupation Other than the categories below 3858 (91.5) 21 (0.54) 1.0  
Involving regular mobility 49 (1.2) 1 (2.04) 2.5 (0.3–19.7)  
Unskilled labour 310 (7.4) 3 (0.97) 1.3 (0.3-4.8)  
Behavioural      
Spouse HIV status at baseline HIV –ve 2983 (69.3) 9 (0.30) 1.0 1.0
HIV + ve 48 (1.1) 7 (14.58) 45.9 (14.3–147.3) 27.7 (8.7–88.3)
Never married at baseline 367 (8.5) 1 (0.27) 1.3 (0.2–10.4) 1.1 (0.1–9.4)
Spouse HIV status not available at baseline 906 (21.1) 8 (0.88) 3.3 (1.1–7.8) 1.4 (0.4–4.4)
Men sex partners Never had sex or only one lifetime partner 3613 (96.2) 21 (0.58) 1.0  
More than one lifetime men partner 142 (3.8) 3 (2.11) 2.2 (0.6–8.3)  
Had blood transfusion Never 3727 (88.9) 21 (0.56) 1.0  
Ever 465 (11.1) 4 (0.86) 1.2 (0.4–3.8)  
Had tattooing No 3559 (84.9) 19 (0.53) 1.0  
Yes 633 (15.1) 6 (0.95) 1.1 (0.4–3.2)  
Smoking or chewing tobacco Never 4039 (96.3) 21 (0.52) 1.0 1.0
Ever 157 (3.7) 4 (2.55) 4.4 (1.2–15.6) 3.3 (1.0–11.3)
Injections received in the last 12 months No 1802 (43.0) 8 (0.44) 1.0  
Yes 2391 (57.0) 17 (0.71) 1.0 (0.4–2.6)  
Travel outside place of residence Never 509 (12.1) 6 (1.18) 1.0  
Daily 227 (5.4) 1(0.44) 0.3 (0–2.8)  
Weekly 84 (2.0) 1 (1.19) 0.5 (0–4.7)  
Monthly 349 (8.3) 3 (0.86) 0.4 (0.1–1.9)  
Once in a while 3046 (72.3) 14 (0.46) 0.3 (0.1–0.9)  
Contacted by any one for HIV prevention programme No 3479 (86.5) 19 (0.55) 1.0  
Yes 544 (13.5) 6 (1.10) 1.5 (0.5–4.1)  
HIV testing No 2735 (68.0) 11 (0.40) 1.0 1.0
Other 590 (14.7) 12 (2.03) 3.0 (1.1–7.8) 4.0 (1.6–9.9)
  As part of antenatal care 696 (17.3) 2 (0.29) 1.1 (0.2–5.2) 1.3 (0.3–6.2)
  1. aAll variables based on status as at follow–up, except rural or urban residence and spouse HIV status. Total number of women in the socio-demographic only model was 4,207, in the behavioural only model was 3,752, and the combined model was 4,013 because of missing data for these variables: marital status for 85, education status for 85, occupation status for 87, Standard of living index for 12, sex with men for 549, had tattooing for 112, had blood transfusion for 112, smoking or chewing tobacco for 108, HIV testing other than ANC for 283, injections received in the last 12 months for 111, contacted by any one for HIV prevention programme for 281, travel outside place of residence for 89.
  2. bAdjusted odds based on separate multiple logistic regression models for socio-demographic variables and for behavioural variables.
  3. cAdjusted odds based on a single multiple logistic regression model that included socio-demographic and behavioural variables that were significant in the separate models.
  4. dStandard of living index based on living conditions and ownership of assets, as used in National Family Health Survey-2 [27]; quartiles defined according to the baseline study distribution [18].