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Table 4 Association of socio-demographic and behavioural variables with acquiring HIV among men during the follow-up period using multiple logistic regression

From: HIV incidence from the first population-based cohort study in India

Variablea Category Number (% of total) Number (%) who acquired HIV Adjusted oddsbof acquiring HIV (95% CI) Adjusted oddscof acquiring HIV (95% CI)
Socio-demographic      
Age (years) 20-29 1272 (31.1) 6 (0.47) 1.0  
30-39 1200 (29.4) 5 (0.42) 1.0 (0.3–4.0)  
40-49 983 (24.1) 7 (0.71) 1.6 (0.4–5.9)  
50-55 631 (15.4) 5 (0.79) 2.3 (0.6–9.4)  
Education Schooling 3078 (76.2) 15 (0.49) 1.0  
No Schooling 960 (23.8) 8 (0.83) 1.1 (0.4–2.9)  
Marital status Never married 511 (12.7) 3 (0.59) 1.0  
Currently married/Cohabiting 3448 (85.4) 16 (0.46) 0.5 (0.1–2.1)  
Previously married 78 (1.9) 4 (5.13) 3.2 (0.5–21.1)  
Standard of living indexd Quartile IV 1051 (25.8) 2 (0.19) 1.0 1.0
Quartile III 1051 (25.8) 4 (0.38) 2.0 (0.4–11.2) 1.7 (0.3–10.9)
Quartile II 1046 (25.6) 5 (0.48) 2.5 (0.5–13.5) 2.2 (0.4–13.5)
Quartile I 930 (22.8) 12 (1.29) 5.9 (1.2–29.5) 4.5 (0.9–23.5)
Place of residence at baseline Rural 2244 (54.9) 14 (0.62) 1.0  
Urban 1842 (45.1) 9 (0.49) 1.1 (0.4–2.9)  
Residence relocation Rural to urban 75 (1.8) 2 (2.7) 3.9 (0.7–20.5)  
  All others 4011 (98.2) 21 (0.5) 1.0  
Occupation Other than the categories below 3170 (78.5) 15 (0.47) 1.0 1.0
Transport related 355 (8.8) 5 (1.41) 3.0 (1.0–8.3) 3.1 (1.0–9.7)
Unskilled labour 512 (12.7) 3 (0.59) 1.0 (0.3–3.7) 0.9 (0.2–3.6)
Behavioural      
Spouse HIV status at baseline HIV –ve 2810 (68.8) 7 (0.25) 1.0 1.0
HIV + ve 17 (0.4) 6 (35.29) 411.9 (84.0–2019.6) 266.5 (62.5–1136.7)
Never married at baseline 1089 (26.7) 5 (0.46) 1.5 (0.4–6.1) 1.3 (0.3–5.0)
Spouse HIV status not available at baseline 170 (4.2) 5 (2.94) 9.5 (2.6–34.5) 7.4 (2.0–26.8)
Circumcision Yes 744 (18.6) 1 (0.13) 1.0 1.0
No 3265 (81.4) 22 (0.67) 13.4 (1.0–181.4) 13.8 (1.2–153.5)
Women sex partner Never had sex or only one lifetime women partner, never visited sex worker 2301 (60.8) 6 (0.26) 1.0 1.0
More than one lifetime women partner or visited sex worker 1483 (39.2) 16 (1.08) 3.2 (1.0–10.1) 3.8 (1.3–11.5)
Used condom for sex in last 6 months Not used/Do not remember 3143 (82.7) 14 (0.45) 1.0 1.0
Never had sex/No sex in last 6 months 563 (14.8) 4 (0.71) 2.6 (0.7–10.1) 2.3 (0.6–8.7)
Half of the time/rarely 34 (0.9) 1 (2.94) 4.0 (0.4–41.1) 3.5 (0.3–36.6)
Often/always 60 (1.6) 3 (5.00) 17.8 (3.7–85.9) 14.5 (3.2–65.4)
Have sex after consumption of alcohol Never had sex/Do not drink alcohol 1620 (42.7) 4 (0.25) 1.0  
Usually 217 (5.7) 2 (0.92) 1.5 (0.1–15.0)  
Some time 904 (23.8) 8 (0.88) 3.0 (0.7–13.6)  
Never 1057 (27.8) 8 (0.76) 1.8 (0.4–7.7)  
Had blood transfusion Never 3901 (97.3) 21 (0.54) 1.0  
Ever 109 (2.7) 2 (1.83) 5.0 (0.9–27.9)  
Had tattooing No 3633 (90.6) 20 (0.55) 1.0  
Yes 376 (9.4) 3 (0.80) 0.9 (0.2–3.8)  
Smoking or chewing tobacco Never 1612 (40.1) 3 (0.19) 1.0  
Ever 2404 (59.9) 20 (0.83) 4.0 (0.8–20.5)  
Injections received in the last 12 months No 1713 (42.7) 7 (0.41) 1.0  
Yes 2301 (57.3) 16 (0.70) 1.4 (0.5–3.8)  
Travel outside place of residence Never 299 (7.4) 1 (0.33) 1.0  
Daily 1144 (28.4) 9 (0.79) 2.4 (0.3–22.6)  
Weekly 748 (18.6) 2 (0.27) 0.6 (0–8.3)  
Monthly 749 (18.6) 6 (0.80) 2.2 (0.2–22.2)  
Once in a while 1085 (27.0) 5. (0.46) 1.6 (0.2–16.6)  
HIV testing No 2840 (72.5) 15 (0.53) 1.0  
  Yes 1077 (27.5) 8 (0.74) 1.1 (0.4–3.0)  
  1. aAll variables based on status as at follow-up, except rural or urban residence and spouse HIV status. Total number of men in the socio-demographic only model was 4,030, in the behavioural only model was 3,757, and the combined model was 3,773 because of missing data for these variables: marital status for 49, education status for 48, occupation status for 49, Standard of living index for 8, sex with women for 302, Used condom for sex in last 6 months for 286, have sex after consumption of alcohol for 288, circumcision for 77, had tattooing for 77, had blood transfusion for 76, smoking or chewing tobacco for 70, HIV testing other than ANC for 169, injections received in the last 12 months for 72, travel outside place of residence for 61.
  2. bAdjusted odds based on separate multiple logistic regression models for socio-demographic variables and for behavioural variables.
  3. cAdjusted odds based on a single multiple logistic regression model that included socio-demographic and behavioural variables that were significant in the separate models.
  4. dStandard of living index based on living conditions and ownership of assets, as used in National Family Health Survey-2 [27]; quartiles defined according to the baseline study distribution [18].