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Table 2 Studies reporting hepatitis C virus prevalence among the general population in Egypt

From: The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Egypt: a systematic review and data synthesis

Citation Year Location Sampling Population characteristic Sample size Sero-prevalence RNA prevalence
Outpatient clinic attendees
Khalifa,93 [18] 1990-1 Cairo city, Cairo CS Children 84 0.0% N/A
El-Nanawy,95 [19] N/A Alexandria city, Alexandria CS Children 110 11.8% N/A
Miras,02 [20] N/A Tanta, Gharbia, Lower Egypt CS In/out-patient children living in HCV endemic region 105 0.0% N/A
El-Raziky,07 [21] 2004 Cairo city, Cairo CS Children 1–9 yrs old 1,042 1.4% 0.5%
Kandil,07 [22] 2004-6 Cairo city, Cairo CS Healthy children 20 5.0% N/A
Antenatal clinic attendees
Hassan,93 [23] N/A N/A CS   1,536 4.3% N/A
Agha,98 [24] 1996-7 Mansoura, Dakahlia, Lower Egypt CS   767 13.7% 23.7%
Kassem,00 [25] 1996 Alexandria city, Alexandria CS   100 19.0% 14.0%
Stoszek,05 [26] 1997-03 3 rural villages in Nile River Delta, Lower Egypt CS   2,587 15.8% 10.8%
Zahran,10 [27] 2008-9 Assuit, Upper Egypt CS   500 8.0% 7.4%
Abdulqawi,10 [28] 2003-8 Benha, Qalubiya, Lower Egypt CS   1,224 8.6% 6.8%
Abo Elmagd,11 [29] N/A N/A CS 20-40 year old mothers 61 13.0% N/A
Blood donors
Kamel,92 [30] 1992 Cairo city, Cairo CS Male university students, 20–27 years 2,164 9.7% N/A
El-Zayadi,92 [31] N/A N/A CS   76 5.2% N/A
Darwish,92 [32] N/A N/A CS   90 14.4% N/A
Darwish,93 [33] 1992 Cairo city, Cairo CS   163 13.6% N/A
El-Ahmady,94 [10] N/A N/A CS Paid blood donors 99 35.4% N/A
Quinti,95 [34] 1992-4 Alexandria city, Alexandria CS   283 20.8% N/A
Bassily,95 [35] N/A Cairo city, Cairo CS   188 26.6% N/A
El Gohary,95 [36] 1990-2 Suez city, Suez and Ismailia, Lower Egypt CS   1,187 14.5% N/A
Attia,96 [37] N/A Cairo city, Cairo CS   156 21.8% N/A
Arthur,97 [38] 1993 24 Governorates CS   2,644 24.8% N/A
El-Zayadi,97 [39] N/A N/A CS   180 9.4% N/A
Gad,01 [40] 1998 Ismailia, Lower Egypt CS   20 20.0% N/A
Tanaka,04 [41] 1999 13 governorates, Upper and Lower Egypt CS   3,608 8.8% 6.2%
Hashish,05 [42] N/A Alexandria city, Alexandria CS   95 23.2% N/A
El-Gilany,06 [43] 2002-3 Mansoura, Dakahlia, Lower Egypt CS Student voluntary blood donors 2,157 2.7% N/A
Agha,06 [44] N/A N/A CS   2,400 8.0% N/A
El Damaty,07 [45] 2001 Cairo city, Cairo CS   2,845 7.6% N/A
El-Zayadi,08 [46] 2005 26 governorates Random All blood donors 760 5.0% N/A
El-Zayadi,08 [46] 2005 26 governorates   Female blood donors 124 6.5% N/A
El-Zayadi,08 [46] 2005 26 governorates   Male blood donors 636 4.7% N/A
Ismail,09 [47] 2000-7 Mansoura, Dakahlia, Lower Egypt CS   55,922 12.0% N/A
Ashour,09 [48] 2006-8 8 governorates CS   515,758 4.8% N/A
Elkareh,09 [11] 2008 Menoufia, Lower Egypt CS Family replacement blood donors 4,709 12.7% N/A
Elkareh,09 [11] 2008 Menoufia, Lower Egypt CS Blood donors 3,569 6.3% N/A
Elkareh,09 [11] 2008 Menoufia, Lower Egypt CS Family replacement blood donors 8,705 14.6% N/A
Elkareh,09 [11] 2008 Menoufia, Lower Egypt CS Blood donors 414 8.7% N/A
Rushdy,09 [13] 2006-7 Suez Canal area CS All blood donors 9,150 5.6% N/A
Rushdy,09 [13] 2006-7 Suez Canal area   Male blood donors 7,155 2.9% N/A
Rushdy,09 [13] 2006-7 Suez Canal area   Female blood donors 1,995 1.7% N/A
Eita,09 [12] 2005-8 Dakhilia, Lower Egypt CS Voluntary blood donors 73,431 4.6% N/A
Eita,09 [12] 2005-8 Dakhilia, Lower Egypt CS Family blood donors 113,504 5.5% N/A
Khattab,10 [36] 2000-8 Minya, Lower Egypt CS   211,772 9.0% N/A
Radwan,10 [49] 2009 N/A CS   27,537 4.0% N/A
Wasfi,11 [50] 2007-8 Alexandria city, Alexandria CS   3,420 3.5% N/A
Awadalla,11 [51] N/A Cairo city, Cairo CS   1,000 16.8% N/A
Farawela,12 [52] 2010-1 Cairo city, Cairo CS   100 5% N/A
Rural village residents
Abdel-Wahab,94 [53] 1992 Menoufia, Lower Egypt CS   270 18.1% N/A
Kamel,94 [54] 1992 Sada, Kafr El Sheikh, Lower Egypt All village residents   1,259 15.9% N/A
El Gohary,95 [36] 1990-2 Suez Canal area CS Healthy blood volunteers resident to rural area with high schistosomiasis 271 14.4% N/A
El Gohary,95 [36] 1990-2 North Sinai, frontier CS Bedouin population with low schistosomiasis 148 15.5% N/A
Darwish,95 [55] N/A N/A CS Healthy villagers and non-professional blood donors 188 21.8% N/A
Darwish,96 [56] 1994 Kalama, Qaluobyia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents:1–3 years 12 0.0% N/A
Darwish,96 [56] 1994 Kalama, Qaluobyia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents: 4–9 years 21 0.0% N/A
Darwish,96 [56] 1994 Kalama, Qaluobyia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents: 10–19 years 46 8.0% N/A
Darwish,96 [56] 1994 Kalama, Qaluobyia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents: 20–39 years 29 20.0% N/A
Darwish,96 [56] 1994 Kalama, Qaluobyia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents: 40–67 years old 47 51.0% N/A
El-Sayed,97 [57] 1993-4 Sinai, frontier CS Immigrants to a newly reclaimed area endemic for schistosomiasis 506 10.3% N/A
Nafeh,00 [58] N/A Assuit, Upper Egypt CS Village residents ≥ 5 years of age (overall) 6,031 8.7% 5.4%
Nafeh,00 [58] N/A Assuit, Upper Egypt CS Village residents ≤30 years 4,164 3.6% 2.0%
Nafeh,00 [58] N/A Assuit, Upper Egypt CS Village residents >30 years 1,867 20.0% 12.9%
Abdel-Aziz,00 [59] 1997 Aghour El Soughra, Qaluobyia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents ≥5 years old (overall) 3,999 24.3% 14.8%
Abdel-Aziz,00 [59] 1997 Aghour El Soughra, Qaluobyia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents: ≤20 years 2,105 9.3% N/A
Abdel-Aziz,00 [59] 1997 Aghour El Soughra, Qaluobyia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents >20 years 1,894 41.0% N/A
Darwish,01 [60] 1994-5 Kalama, Qaluobyia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents >10 years of age 796 40.0% N/A
El-Sadawy,04 [61] N/A Sharkia, Lower Egypt CS   842 27.4% 7.4%
Arafa,05 [62] 2002-3 Zawiat Razin, Menoufia, Lower Egypt CS   4,020 11.8% N/A
Arafa,05 [62] 2002-3 Zawiat Razin, Menoufia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents: under 20 years old 1,759 2.8% N/A
Arafa,05 [62] 2002-3 Zawiat Razin, Menoufia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents: 20 and over years old 2,252 18.9% N/A
Mohamed,06 [63] 2002 Zawiat Razin, Menoufia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents 18–65 years of age 2,425 18.5% N/A
Eassa,07 [64] 2006-7 Zagazig district, Sharkia, Lower Egypt CS Village households 304 10.9% N/A
Aguilar,08 [65] N/A Fakkous and 8 surrounding villages CS Village residents: males 78 51.3% 38.5%
Aguilar,08 [65] N/A Fakkous and 8 surrounding villages, Sharkia, Lower Egypt CS Village residents: females 81 42.0% 29.6%
Children
Abdel-Wahab,94 [53] 1992 Menoufia, Lower Egypt CS Rural male primary school children 190 12.1% N/A
El-Sherbini,03 [66] 1994 N/A CS Village school children 6–15 years old 294 5.8% 2.4%
Mohamed,06 [67] 1997 Nile River Delta, Lower Egypt CS Village children 5–18 years old 1,823 8.2% N/A
Mohamed,06 [67] 1997 Assuit, Upper Egypt CS Village children 5–18 years old 2,808 2.5% N/A
El Sherbini,07 [68] 2002 Tanta, Gharbia, Lower Egypt CS School children 470 2.1% 0.8%
Barakat,11 [69] 2005 Alexandria city, Alexandria PBS School children 500 5.8% 4.4%
Healthy individuals
El-Sayed,96 [70] 1994 South Sinai, frontier CS Tourism workers 740 14.3% N/A
Mohamed,96 [71] N/A N/A CS Egyptians applying for work abroad 5,071 31.5% N/A
Mohamed,96 [71] N/A N/A CS Egyptians applying for work abroad: Females N/A 13.2% N/A
Mohamed,96 [71] N/A N/A CS Egyptians applying for work abroad: Males N/A 34.0% N/A
Gohar,95 [72] N/A N/A CS   15 13.3% N/A
Halim,99 [73] 1996 Cairo city, Cairo CS Healthy staff of the university 50 6.0% N/A
Hassan,01 [74] 1995-6 Cairo city, Cairo CS Healthy individuals visiting hospitalized friends 35 42.9% N/A
Strickland,02 [75] N/A Nile River Delta, Lower Egypt CS   212 46.7% 36.3%
El-sayed,06 [76] 2002 Cairo city, Cairo CS   36 8.3% 2.8%
El Bassuoni,08 [77] N/A N/A CS   10 30.0% N/A
Salama,09 [78] N/A N/A CS   20 5.0% N/A
Army recruits/Fire brigade personnel
Farghaly,93 [79] N/A N/A CS Army recruits 726 33.0% N/A
Abdel-Wahab,94 [53] 1992 Lower Egypt CS Army recruits 300 22.1% N/A
Quinti,95 [34] 1992-4 Alexandria city, Alexandria CS Fire brigade personnel 541 39.0% N/A
Other general populations
El-Ahmady,94 [10] N/A Cairo city, Cairo CS   292 24.3% N/A
El-Sadawy,04 [61] N/A Sharkia, Lower Egypt PBS   1,422 25.8% 7.7%
El-Sadawy,04 [61] N/A Sharkia, Lower Egypt PBS General population in urban areas 580 23.4% N/A
El-Sadawy,04 [61] N/A Sharkia, Lower Egypt PBS General population: <20 years 414 4.8% N/A
El-Sadawy,04 [61] N/A Sharkia, Lower Egypt PBS General population: 20 – 30 years 163 14.1% N/A
El-Sadawy,04 [61] N/A Sharkia, Lower Egypt PBS General population: 30 – 40 years 253 30.0% N/A
El-Sadawy,04 [61] N/A Sharkia, Lower Egypt PBS General population: >40 years 592 41.9% N/A
Mohamed,04 [80] 1996-7 10 governorates PBS General population 7,357 13.5% N/A
El Zanaty,09 [1] 2008 Nationwide PBS   11,126 14.7% 9.8%
  1. CS convenience sampling, PBS probability-based sampling, N/A not available.