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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of participants

From: Epidemiology and clinical presentation of the four human parainfluenza virus types

Characteristics HPIVs infection in 4447 patients 4 types distributions in 174 HPIVs-positive patients Co-infected with HPIVs
HPIV-positive (n=174)* HPIV-negative (n=4273) p value§ HPIV-1 (n=57) HPIV-2 (n=18) HPIV-3 (n=97) HPIV-4 (n=8) p value Single HPIV (n=109) Co-pathogens (n=65) p value#
Nasal obstruction 55(31.6) 1324(31.0) 0.862 20(35.1) 4(22.2) 31(32) 3(37.5) 0.767 34(31.2) 21(32.3) 0.878
Coryza 68(39.1) 1568(36.7) 0.523 22(38.6) 7(38.9) 44(45.4) 1(12.5) 0.306 47(43.1) 21(32.3) 0.157
Sneeze 10(5.7) 221(5.2) 0.738 1(1.8) 1(5.6) 7(7.2) 1(12.5) 0.421 7(6.4) 3(4.6) 0.964
Cough 164(94.3) 3426(80.2) 0.738 53(93) 17(94.4) 93(95.9) 7(87.5) 0.718 104(95.4) 60(92.3) 0.395
Expectoration 77(44.3) 1739(40.7) 0.35 11(19.3) 9(50) 49(50.5) 1(12.5) <0.001 49(45) 28(43.1) 0.809
Pharyngeal discomfort 33(19.0) 1428(33.4) <0.001 16(28.1) 5(27.8) 12(12.4) 1(12.5) 0.073 22(20.2) 11(16.9) 0.596
Hoarseness 7(4.0) 68(1.6) 0.015 2(3.5) 1(5.6) 3(3.1) 1(12.5) 0.592 7(6.4) 0(0) 0.037
Abnormal pulmonary breathing sound 68(39.1) 1078(25.2) <0.001 20(35.1) 7(38.9) 40(41.2) 4(50) 0.811 43(39.4) 25(38.5) 0.897
Dyspnoea 70(40.2) 1010(23.6) <0.001 19(33.3) 7(38.9) 44(45.4) 3(37.5) 0.529 45(41.3) 25(38.5) 0.713
Increasing lung markings 10(5.7) 134(3.1) 0.056 4(7) 1(5.6) 4(4.1) 1(12.5) 0.718 6(5.5) 4(6.2) 0.859
Bronchopneumonia 24(13.8) 416(9.7) 0.079 11(19.3) 3(16.7) 10(10.3) 1(12.5) 0.464 17(15.6) 7(10.8) 0.372
Pneumonia 28(16.1) 428(10.0) 0.01 10(17.5) 3(16.7) 17(17.5) 0(0) 0.641 20(18.3) 8(12.3) 0.294
Fever (≥38°C) 97(55.7) 3004(70.3) <0.001 33(57.9) 12(66.7) 53(54.6) 2(25) 0.532 57(52.3) 40(61.5) 0.235
Chill 6(3.4) 893(20.9) <0.001 3(5.3) 0(0) 3(3.1) 0(0) 0.666 4(3.7) 2(3.1) 0.836
Dizziness 4(2.3) 543(12.7) <0.001 3(5.3) 1(5.6) 0(0) 0(0) 0.125 3(2.8) 1(1.5) 0.605
Headache 7(4.0) 1063(24.9) <0.001 4(7) 2(11.1) 1(1) 0(0) 0.092 6(5.5) 1(1.5) 0.198
Myalgia 3(1.7) 613(14.3) <0.001 2(3.5) 1(5.6) 0(0) 0(0) 0.202 3(2.8) 1(1.5) 0.605
Debilitation 6(3.4) 1103(25.8) <0.001 2(3.5) 1(5.6) 3(3.1) 0(0) 0.902 3(2.8) 3(4.6) 0.515
Vomiting 14(8.0) 326(7.6) 0.839 5(8.8) 2(11.1) 9(9.3) 0(0) 0.823 6(5.5) 8(12.3) 0.110
Poor appetite 27(15.5) 737(17.2) 0.553 11(19.3) 2(11.1) 13(13.4) 1(12.5) 0.736 17(15.6) 10(15.4) 0.970
Diarrhoea 16(9.2) 77(1.8) <0.001 3(5.3) 1(5.6) 12(12.4) 0(0) 0.333 11(10.1) 5(7.7) 0.596
Convulsion 2(1.1) 63(1.5) 0.726 1(1.8) 0(0) 1(1) 0(0) 0.916 2(1.8) 0(0) 0.272
Rash etc. 5(2.9) 64(1.5) 0.15 5(8.8) 0(0) 5(5.2) 0(0) 0.443 4(3.7) 1(1.5) 0.416
  1. *Data are No.(%) of each group. Percentages sum to over 100% because some patients had more than one diagnosis.
  2. Including pharyngeal dryness and pharyngalgia.
  3. Including phlegm rale, wheeze rale, bubbling rale, moist rale, and rhonchi.
  4. §Two-tailed χ2 test, testing the distribution of each illness or diagnosis between HPIV-positive and HPIV-negative patients.
  5. Two-tailed χ2 test, testing the distribution of each illness or diagnosis between the four HPIV types.
  6. #Two-tailed χ2 test, testing the distribution of each illness or diagnosis between patients solely infected with HPIV and those co-infected.