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Table 3 Correlates of change in Log 10 -transformed angiopoietin-2 level after ART initiation, GEE analysis

From: A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy

  Bivariable model a Multivariable model 1 b Multivariable model 2 c
  Mean change (95% CI) P value Mean change (95% CI) P value Mean change (95%) P value
Baseline predictor       
Hormonal status       
  No exogenous hormones Reference   Reference   Reference  
  Oral contraceptive pills 0.474 (0.175 to 0.772) 0.002 0.661 (0.393 to 0.929) <0.001 0.660 (0.397 to 0.922) <0.001
  DMPA 0.166 (−0.080 to 0.411) 0.19 0.078 (−0.152 to 0.307) 0.51 0.082 (−0.144 to 0.308) 0.48
  Norplant −0.290 (−0.960 to 0.380) 0.40 −0.389 (−1.012 to 0.235) 0.22 −0.396 (−0.997 to 0.205) 0.20
Nutritional status       
  Adequate nutrition Reference      
  Mild to moderate malnutrition −0.278 (−0.670 to 0.113) 0.16     
  Severe malnutrition −0.625 (−0.761 to −0.489) <0.001     
WHO stage       
  Stage I Reference   Reference   Reference  
  Stage II 0.031 (−0.344 to 0.407) 0.87 −0.088 (−0.439 to 0.263) 0.62 −0.061 (−0.413 to 0.291) 0.73
  Stage III −0.151 (−0.466 to 0.163) 0.35 −0.307 (−0.621 to 0.006) 0.06 −0.291 (−0.604 to 0.022) 0.07
  Stage IV −0.546 (−0.998 to −0.093) .02 −0.492 (−0.946 to −0.039) .03 −0.444 (−0.892 to 0.004) 0.05
CD4 Category (cells/μL)       
  <200 Reference      
  200–350 −0.260 (−0.515 to −0.006) 0.04     
  >350 0.060 (−0.081 to 0.202) 0.40     
Time-dependent predictor       
Log10 Angiopoietin-1 (ng/mL) 0.683 (0.144 to 1.222) 0.01     
Change in Log10 ANG-1 (ng/mL) 0.709 (0.134 to 1.284) 0.02 0.953 (0.536 to 1.370) <0.001 0.944 (0.534 to 1.354) <0.001
Suppressed Plasma HIV-1 RNA −0.158 (−0.381 to 0.064) 0.16 −0.182 (−0.378 to 0.014) 0.07   
Log10 Plasma HIV-1 RNA (copies/mL) 0.142 (0.050 to 0.235) 0.003    0.128 (0.029 to 0.228) 0.012
Change in Log10 Plasma HIV-1 RNA (copies/mL) 0.102 (0.022 to 0.182) 0.01     
Hormonal status       
  No exogenous hormones Reference   Reference   Reference  
  Oral contraceptive pills 0.367 (0.130 to 0.604) 0.002 0.019 (−0.160 to 0.199) 0.83 0.042 (−0.127 to 0.210) 0.63
  DMPA 0.264 (0.021 to 0.506) 0.03 0.098 (−0.130 to 0.326) 0.40 0.123 (−0.108 to 0.353) 0.30
  Norplant −0.353 (−1.090 to 0.383) 0.35   
  Pregnant 1.152 (0.591 to 1.712) <0.001 1.302 (0.795 to 1.810) <0.001 1.299 (0.749 to 1.849) <0.001
Nutritional status       
  Adequate nutrition Reference   Reference   Reference  
  Mild to moderate malnutrition −0.185 (−0.583 to 0.213) 0.36 −0.325 (−0.615 to −0.035) 0.03 −0.353 (−0.664 to −0.042) 0.03
  Severe malnutrition 0.627 (0.441 to 0.813) <0.001 0.688 (0.406 to 0.970) <0.001 0.729 (0.433 to 1.015) <0.001
  Current tuberculosis 0.635 (0.191 to 1.079) 0.005 0.557 (0.137 to 0.977) 0.009 0.491 (0.053 to 0.929) 0.03
CD4 Category (cells/μL)       
  <200 Reference      
  200–350 −0.266 (−0.526 to −0.007) 0.04     
  >350 −0.145 (−0.435 to 0.145) 0.33     
  1. CI Confidence interval, GEE generalized estimating equations.
  2. a Adjusted for baseline log10 angiopoietin-2 level (ng/mL).
  3. b Adjusted for baseline log10 angiopoietin-2 level (ng/mL) and other covariates presented. Change in ANG-1 and virologic suppression were included a priori in multivariable modeling.
  4. c Adjusted for baseline log10 angiopoietin-2 level (ng/mL) and other covariates presented. Change in ANG-1 was included a priori and log10 plasma HIV-1 RNA was substituted for virologic suppression in multivariable modeling.
  5. N.B. Variables not significant at p < 0.10 in bivariate analysis are not included in the table, including baseline ANG-1, baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA, baseline age, baseline Karnofsky Performance Score, baseline tuberculosis, tobacco use, alcohol use, and time-dependent Karnofsky Performance Score. Data from one visit with an outlier value for log10 angiopoietin-1 have been excluded, as described in the text.