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Table 2 Correlates of change in log 10 angiopoietin-1 level after ART initiation, GEE analysis

From: A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy

  Bivariable model a Multivariable model b
  Mean change, ( 95% CI) P value Mean change, ( 95% CI) P value
Baseline predictor     
Hormonal status     
  No exogenous hormones Reference   Reference  
  Oral contraceptive pills −0.049 (−0.172 to 0.073) 0.43 −0.154 (−0.330 to 0.022) 0.09
  DMPA 0.059 (−0.003 to 0.121) 0.06 0.028 (−0.055 to 0.110) 0.51
  Norplant 0.013 (−0.061 to 0.086) 0.74 0.039 (−0.052 to 0.131) 0.40
Nutritional status     
  Adequate nutrition Reference   Reference  
  Mild to moderate malnutrition −0.089 (−0.198 to 0.020) 0.11 −0.083 (−0.192 to 0.026) 0.14
  Severe malnutrition −0.191 (−0.236 to −0.147) <0.001 −0.212 (−0.286 to −0.137) <0.001
Karnofsky Performance Score     
  Asymptomatic or mild symptoms (90–100) Reference   Reference  
  Moderate symptoms (80) 0.031 (−0.046 to 0.109) 0.43 0.039 (−0.041 to 0.119) 0.34
  Unable to work (<80) 0.100 (0.030 to 0.170) 0.005 0.091 (0.015 to 0.166) 0.02
WHO Stage     
  Stage I Reference    
  Stage II −0.016 (−0.103 to 0.071) 0.72   
  Stage III −0.070 (−0.138 to −0.002) 0.04   
  Stage IV −0.092 (−0.194 to 0.009) 0.08   
CD4 Category (cells/μL)     
  <200 Reference    
  200–350 0 (−0.088 to 0.087) 0.98   
  >350 −0.038 (−0.070 to −0.007) 0.02   
Time-dependent predictor     
Change in Log10 Angiopoietin-2 (ng/mL) 0.037 (−0.016 to 0.091) 0.17 0.053 (0.018 to 0.087) 0.003
Suppressed Plasma HIV-1 RNA 0.042 (−0.015 to 0.098) 0.15 0.055 (0 to 0.109) 0.05
Hormonal status     
  No exogenous hormones Reference   Reference  
  Oral contraceptive pills −0.013 (−0.200 to 0.173) 0.89 0.044 (−0.183 to 0.271) 0.70
  DMPA 0.053 (−0.011 to 0.117) 0.10 0.020 (−0.065 to 0.105) 0.65
  Norplant 0.024 (−0.068 to 0.115) 0.61  
  Pregnant −0.200 (−0.371 to −0.029) 0.02 −0.275 (−0.469 to −0.082) 0.005
Nutritional status     
  Adequate nutrition Reference    
  Mild to moderate malnutrition 0.044 (−0.151 to 0.238) 0.63   
  Severe malnutrition −0.093 (−0.124 to −0.062) <0.001   
  1. CI Confidence interval, GEE generalized estimating equations.
  2. a Adjusted for baseline log10 angiopoietin-1 level (ng/mL).
  3. b Adjusted for baseline log10 angiopoietin-1 level (ng/mL) and other covariates presented. Change in ANG-2 and virologic suppression were included a priori in multivariable modeling.
  4. N.B. Variables not significant at p < 0.10 in bivariate analysis are not included in the table, including baseline ANG-2, baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA, baseline age, baseline tuberculosis, tobacco use, alcohol use, time-dependent ANG-2, time-dependent plasma HIV-1 RNA, change in plasma HIV-1 RNA, time-dependent Karnofsky Performance Score, time-dependent tuberculosis, and time-dependent CD4 category. Data from one visit with an outlier value for log10 angiopoietin-1 have been excluded, as described in the text.