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Table 4 Bivariate associations of the levels of adherence to ART with behavioral, clinical, food & diet related factors among study participants in Tigray regional state, northern Ethiopia, 2012

From: Effect of nutritional factors on adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected adults: a case control study in Northern Ethiopia

Characteristics of study participants Status of adherence to ART COR (95%CI)
  Non-adherent to ART Number (%) Adherent to ART Number (%)  
Daily eating pattern of last 12 months    
  Three meals & above 21(12.1) 17(9.8) 1
  Two meals & eating between meals 136(78.2) 140(80.5) 0.8(0.4 – 1.6)
  Two meals or less 17(9.8) 17(9.8) 0.8(0.3 – 2.3)
Source of food in the last 12 months    
  Purchase (market/grocery) 148(85.1) 144(82.8) 1
  Household farm/garden 11(6.3) 15(8.6) 0.7(0.3 – 1.6)
  Support from others 15(8.6) 15(8.6) 0.9(0.4 – 2.2)
Adjusted mean HGB of the latest four visits (mg/dl)    
  <11.5 29(16.7) 3(1.7) 14(3.3 – 58.8)
  ≥11.5 145(83.3) 171(98.3) 1
Mean TLC of the latest four visits (106cells/mm3)    
  <4.0 28(16.1) 11(6.3) 2.7(1.3 – 5.60
  ≥4.0 146(83.9) 163(93.7) 1
Occupation    
  • Have no Job 26(14.9) 44(25.3) 1
  • Government employed 42(24.1) 46(26.4) 1.6(0.8 – 3.2)
  • Self employed/business 54(31) 36(20.7) 2.7(1.3 – 5.3)
  • Daily laborer 52(29.9) 48(27.6) 1.8(1.0 – 3.4)
Duration of treatment (months)    
  12 – 36 33(19) 28(16.1) 1
  37 – 60 72(41.4) 93(53.5) 0.6(0.4 – 1.2)
  ≥61 69(39.6) 53(30.4) 1.1(0.6 – 2.0)
Current alcohol consumption (within 30 days)    
  Yes 73(42) 11(6.3) 13.4(5.4 – 33.2)
  No 101(58) 163(93.7) 1
Ever use of alcohol after starting ART    
  Yes 140(80.5) 89(51.1) 4.9(2.7 – 8.9)
  No 34(19.5) 85(48.9) 1
PHQ-9 score for depression (Points)    
  <5 53(30.5) 115(66.1) 1
  ≥5 121(69.5) 59(33.9) 5.1(3.0 – 8.9)
Current khat chewing (within 30 days)    
  Yes 17(9.8) 7(4) 2.4(1.0 – 5.9)
  No 157(90.2) 167(96) 1
  1. N.B:- TLC, Total Leukocyte Count; HGB, Hemoglobin; NGO, Non-Government Organization; PHQ, Patient Health Questionnaire.