Skip to main content

Table 3 Sensitivity analyses around indirect effectiveness of PCV13 and co-infection assumptions in normal and pandemic influenza seasons

From: Impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in a pandemic similar to the 2009 H1N1 in the United States

Normal season
  Base-Case IPD indirect effects only No indirect effects Halve % with bacterial co-infection
Cases avoided     
  IPD 13,400 13,400 2,100 13,400
  Hospitalized pneumonia 57,400 5,000 5,000 57,400
  Non-Hospitalized pneumonia 341,200 62,300 62,400 341,200
Deaths averted 2,900 1,200 40 2,900
Cost /(savings) $ (472) M $ 82 M $ 299 M ($ 472 M)
QALYs gained 41,524 18,953 4,484 41,524
Cost per QALY gained dominant $4,300 $66,800 dominant
Pandemic similar to 2009–2010 H1N1
  Base-Case IPD indirect effects only No indirect effects Halve % with bacterial co-infection
Cases avoided     
  IPD 22,800 22,800 5,700 16,900
  Hospitalized pneumonia 97,700 13,700 13,900 72,600
  Non-Hospitalized pneumonia 773,800 170,800 171,900 504,000
Deaths averted 3,700 1,600 110 3,200
Cost/(savings) ($ 1.02 B) ($ 130 M) $ 180 M ($ 676 M)
QALYs gained 51,637 25,671 4,844 44,023
Cost per QALY gained dominant dominant $37,100 dominant
  1. IPD, Invasive pneumococcal disease; M, Million; B, Billion; QALY, Quality-adjusted life-year.