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Table 2 Association between baseline characteristics and incidence of bacterial vaginosis recurrence among 440 female sex workers followed-up in a microbicide trial: hazard ratios (unadjusted vs. adjusted for the study site)

From: Behavioural and medical predictors of bacterial vaginosis recurrence among female sex workers: longitudinal analysis from a randomized controlled trial

Baseline factors Incidence rate of BV recurrence (per 100 person-months) by exposure level (NR*/person-months) Unadjusted HR§ with 95% CI p-value HR§ (adjusted for study site) with 95% CI p-value
Study sites      
   Chennai/ Bagalkot District 39.5 (142/359.57) 5.27 (3.90 – 7.12) <0.0001 - -
   Cotonou 28.9 (160/553.93) 3.69 (2.76 – 4.94) <0.0001 - -
   Kampala (ref) 7.9 (69/869.62) 1.00 - - - -
Age (years; continuous) - 1.03 (1.01 – 1.04) 0.0004 0.99 (0.97 - 1.00) 0.1452
Age (category):      
   ≥28 years (median) 25.8 (196/760.83) 1.52 (1.19 – 1.94) 0.0009 0.83 (0.64 - 1.07) 0.1476
   <28 years 17.1 (175/1022.28) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Number of years in school (continuous) - 0.99 (0.95 – 1.03) 0.6279 1.02 (0.98 - 1.05) 0.2832
Years in school (category):      
   ≥ 6 years 16.8 (151/900.52) 0.67 (0.52 – 0.86) 0.0015 1.05 (0.84 - 1.32) 0.6427
   < 6 years 24.9 (220/882.60) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Living with a man      
   Yes 31.9 (95/297.70) 1.75 (1.35 – 2.26) <0.0001 0.99 (0.73 - 1.32) 0.9227
   No 18.6 (276/1485.42) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Exerting an occupation besides sex work      
   Yes 26.9 (123/457.67) 1.44 (1.10 - 1.89) 0.0076 0.89 (0.68 - 1.15)  
   No (Ref.) 18.7 (248/1325.45) 1.00 - - 1.00 - 0.3612
Having ever been pregnant      
   Yes 21.3 (354/1659.72) 1.55 (0.89 – 2.71) 0.1201 1.16 (0.73 - 1.83) 0.5249
   No 13.8 (17/123.40) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Current contraceptive method      
   Female sterilization 38.2 (121/316.67) 2.21 (1.69 – 2.90) <0.0001 0.99 (0.66 - 1.51) 0.9934
   Intra-uterine device 37.9 (4/10.55) 2.16 (0.90 – 5.15) 0.0837 1.14 (0.56 - 2.34) 0.7215
   Injectable 11.8 (18/152.70) 0.66 (0.39 - 1.13) 0.1308 1.21 (0.69 - 2.10) 0.5095
   Oral 13.1 (18/137.25) 0.73 (0.41 - 1.29) 0.2800 0.98 (0.57 - 1.70) 0.9577
   None (Ref.) 18.0 (210/1165.95) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Recent intra-vaginal cleansing reported at baseline      
   Yes 32.3 (112/347.20) 1.75 (1.34 - 2.28) <.0001 1.31 (1.03 - 1.66) 0.0279
   No 18.5 (246/1326.27) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Number of sexual partners /last 7days (Continuous) - 0.98 (0.97 - 0.99) 0.0003 0.99 (0.99 - 1.00) 0.4145
Number of sexual partners /last 7 days:      
   ≥ 8 partners (median) 14.9 (159/1067.18) 0.49 (0.39 – 0.63) <0.0001 0.89 (0.67 - 1.18) 0.4079
   < 8 partners 29.6 (212/715.93) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Having a primary partner      
   Yes 21.6 (289/1337.92) 1.18 (0.88 – 1.59) 0.2679 0.98 (0.75 - 1.27) 0.8825
   No 18.4 (82/445.20) 1.00 - -   -
CCU‡ with primary partner in the past 7 days:      
   Yes 17.3 (83/479.37) 0.68 (0.48 – 0.96) 0.0277 0.77 (0.56 – 1.07) 0.1236
   No (ref.) 28.7 (134/466.28) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
   No primary partner or no sexual act with him 18.4 (154/837.47) 0.74 (0.55 – 0.99) 0.0459 0.97 (0.74 - 1.28) 0.8564
CCU‡ with other partners in the past 7 days:      
   Yes 20.3 (329/1620.65) 0.49 (0.19 – 1.28) 0.1467 0.86 (0.34 – 2.18) 0.7505
   No (ref.) 25.1 (19/75.70) 1.00 - - - -
   No sexual act with other partners 26.5 (23/86.77) 0.62 (0.22 – 1.71) 0.3556 0.96 (0.35 – 2.59) 0.9340
History of STI      
   Yes 27.0 (176/651.55) 1.53 (1.14 - 2.05) 0.0046 1.13 (0.86 - 1.47) 0.3864
   No 17.2 (195/1131.57) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Anal /oral sex with primary partner/ past 30 days      
   Yes 29.2 (14/47.97) 1.30 (0.70 - 2.42) 0.4018 0.72 (0.38 - 1.34) 0.3011
   No (Ref) 22.3 (292/1311.10) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
   Did not have primary partner 16.5 (52/314.40) 0.74 (0.52 - 1.04) 0.0800 0.99 (0.73 - 1.33) 0.9381
Anal /oral sex with primary partner without condom      
   Yes 29.9 (9/30.08) 1.34 (0.68 - 2.65) 0.3951 0.78 (0.41 - 1.50) 0.4594
   No (Ref) 22.3 (297/1328.98) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
   Did not have primary partner 16.5 (52/314.40) 0.73 (0.52 - 1.03) 0.0766 1.01 (0.74 - 1.35) 0.9931
Anal /oral sex with other partners/past 30 days      
   Yes 46.4 (28/60.32) 2.26 (1.60 - 3.18) <.0001 1.20 (0.82 - 1.74) 0.3434
   No (Ref) 20.7 (330/1591.95) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Anal /oral sex with other partners without condom      
   Yes 47.3 (10/21.15) 2.19 (1.08 - 4.44) 0.0298 1.17 (0.57 - 2.38) 0.6671
   No anal or oral sex with other partners (Ref.) 21.3 (348/1631.12) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
History of irregular menstrual cycles      
   Yes 22.3 (78/349.37) 1.09 (0.80 – 1.48) 0.5733 1.11 (0.84 - 1.47) 0.4708
   No 20.4 (293/1433.75) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Treatment group      
   Active gel 21.5 (178/828.88) 1.07 (0.84 – 1.38) 0.5753 0.97 (0.77 - 1.21) 0.7645
   Placebo 20.2 (193/954.23) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Gonorrhea      
   Present 26.3 (31/117.82) 1.32 (0.81 - 2.12) 0.2618 1.27 (0.81 - 2.00) 0.30271
   Absent 20.3 (336/1650.72) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Chlamydia      
   Present 13.4 (18/134.65) 0.63 (0.34 - 1.15) 0.1319 1.07 (0.62 - 1.85) 0.8035
   Absent 21.4 (349/1633.88) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Trichomoniasis      
   Present 16.4 (14/85.27) 0.76 (0.35 - 1.62) 0.4720 0.90 (0.50 - 1.62) 0.7339
   Absent 21.2 (357/1686.95) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Candidiasis      
   Present 21.8 (85/389.47) 1.05 (0.80 - 1.39) 0.7130 0.97 (0.72 - 1.31) 0.8678
   Absent 20.7 (286/1382.75) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
  1. *NR =number of recurrences; § HR=Hazard ratio; CI=Confidence interval; ‡ CCU=Consistent condom use (100% of sexual acts).