Metabolomic profiling of plasma from two cohorts identifies metabolites that distinguish HIV subjects from controls. (A) Schematic of strategy used to identify plasma metabolites altered in initial and validation cohorts. LC, liquid chromatography; GC, gas chromatography; MS, mass spectrometry; ESI, electrospray ionization; EI, electron ionization. (B) Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of signature metabolites (n=35) that distinguish HIV vs. control subjects in initial and validation cohorts (left and right heatmaps, respectively) regardless of HCV serostatus (FC>1.3, p<0.05, FDR <10%). Red and blue indicate increased and decreased levels, respectively. (C) Top VIP scores with expression heatmap from PLS-DA models. PLS-DA models were constructed with signature metabolites (n=35) from the initial and validation cohorts. Red and green indicate increased and decreased levels, respectively.