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Table 2 Burden of invasive pneumococcal disease, stratified by risk group

From: Clinical and economic burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults: a multicenter hospital-based study

  High-risk group p-value
  Total (n=264) 18-49 Years (n=38) 50-64 Years (n=112) 65-74 Years (n=86) ≥75 Years (n=28)  
Duration of hospitalization 20.1±19.3 22.0±16.5 21.7±21.9 17.3±14.4 19.4±24.2 0.41
ICU admission, no. (%) 84 (31.8) 13 (34.2) 33 (29.5) 28 (32.6) 10 (35.7) 0.9
Duration of ICU admission 3.4±8.7 3.2±7.2 2.7±6.2 3.1±7.5 6.7±17.8 0.19
Case fatality rate, no. (%)* 89/252 (35.3) 8/38 (21.1)a 33/107 (30.8)a 30/82 (40.0)a 18/25 (72.0)b < 0.01
Time to death (days) 9.7±8.5 9.6±5.9 10.6±9.1 8.6±7.9 9.7±9.9 0.85
Direct medical costs per case†       0.76
Mean (95% CI) US $7,667 US $6,990 US $7,135 US $8,609 US $7,880  
  (6,395-8,938) (4,464-9,516) (5,746-8,524) (5,648-11,569) (2,297-13,462)  
Median (IQR) US $5,552 US $6,749 US $5,612 US $5,472 US $3,262  
  (2,567-9,872) (2,474-9,948) (3,007-9,650) (3,278-10,442) (1,532-10,034)  
  Moderate-risk group p -value
  Total ( n =423) 18-49 years ( n =91) 50-64 years ( n =147) 65-74 years ( n =108) ≥75 years ( n =77)  
Duration of hospitalization 17.8±26.1 15.3±15.7 17.7±17.3 19.0±24.4 19.0±45.3 0.76
ICU admission, no. (%) 191 (45.2) 35 (38.5) 68 (46.3) 46 (42.6) 42 (54.5) 0.19
Duration of ICU admission 5.3±20.8 3.2±6.4 5.2±10.9 4.7±8.9 9.0±44.9 0.33
Case fatality rate, no. (%)* 110/397 (27.7) 19/88 (21.6) 37/144 (25.7) 28/96 (29.2) 26/69 (37.7) 0.14
Time to death (days) 7.4±6.8 6.3±5.3 8.8±7.7 7.1±6.1 6.5±6.9 0.45
Direct medical costs per case†       0.03
Mean (95% CI) US $7,037 US $5,404a US $8,756b US $6,964ab US $5,730a  
  (6,120-7,955) (4,191-6,617) (6,650-10,861) (5,395-8,532) (4,423-7,037)  
Median (IQR) US $4,517 US $3,685 US $4,956 US $4,664 US $4,679  
  (2,432-7,961) (2,405-6,805) (2,797-10,003) (2,402-9,499) (1,879-7,057)  
  Low-risk group p -value
  Total ( n =283) 18-49 years ( n =86) 50-64 years ( n =61) 65-74 years ( n =72) ≥75 years ( n =64)  
Duration of hospitalization 19.0±25.6 19.0±20.9 21.9±21.2 19.9±27.4 15.4±32.3 0.55
ICU admission, no. (%) 139 (49.1) 33 (38.4) 31 (50.8) 40 (55.6) 35 (54.7) 0.11
Duration of ICU admission 6.8±13.8 5.9±13.6 8.3±14.3 6.8±13.1 6.8±14.7 0.78
Case fatality rate, no. (%)* 82/260 (31.5) 11/81 (13.6)a 13/58 (22.4)a 28/65 (43.1)b 30/56 (53.6)b < 0.01
Time to death (days) 7.9±9.0 10.2±15.4 9.2±10.3 9.3±8.1 5.3±5.2 0.26
Direct medical costs per case†       0.69
Mean (95% CI) US $7,903 US $6,849 US $8,528 US $8,557 US $8,090  
  (6,675-9,131) (4,931-8,766) (5,715-11,342) (6,239-10,875) (4,727-11,453)  
Median (IQR) US $4,968 US $4,448 US $5,726 US $5,896 US $3,367  
  (2,187-9,613) (1,856-8,574) (3,443-8,858) (2,178-11,733) (1,879-9,308)  
  1. IQR, inter-quartile range.
  2. NOTE: The same letters (alphabetical superscripts) indicate non-significant differences between groups based on either Tukey’s multiple comparison tests or chi-square tests.
  3. * Case fatality rates were based only on patients whose survival or death was confirmed.
  4. †KRW1200=US$1.