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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics and disease burden of invasive pneumococcal disease, stratified by age group

From: Clinical and economic burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults: a multicenter hospital-based study

  Total (n= 970) 18-49 Years (n= 215) 50-64 Years (n= 320) 65-74 Years (n= 266) ≥75 Years (n= 169) p-value
Age, mean±SD 60.9±15.0 38.8±7.9 58.2±4.1 69.3±2.7 81.0±4.4 < 0.01
Risk group, no. (%)       < 0.01
High risk 264 (27.2) 38 (17.7) 112 (35.0) 86 (32.3) 28 (16.6)  
Moderate risk 423 (43.6) 91 (42.3) 147 (45.9) 108 (40.6) 77 (45.5)  
Low risk 283 (29.2) 86 (40.0) 61 (19.1) 72 (27.1) 64 (37.9)  
Sex (male), no. (%) 673 (69.4) 139 (64.7)a 237 (74.1)b 191 (71.8)b 106 (62.7)a 0.02
ECOG performance status grade 4, no. (%) 89 (9.2) 10 (4.7)a 19 (5.9)a 27 (10.2)b 33 (19.5)c < 0.01
Heavy alcoholic, no. (%)* 99 (10.2) 32 (14.9)a 46 (14.4)a 14 (5.3)b 7 (4.1)b < 0.01
Current smoker, no. (%) 171 (17.6) 46 (21.4)a 60 (18.8)a 48 (18.0)a 17 (10.1)b 0.03
Comorbid condition, no. (%) 630 (64.9) 95 (44.2)a 235 (73.4)b 188 (70.7)b 112 (66.3)b < 0.01
Splenic dysfunction 8 (0.8) 4 (1.9) 1 (0.3) 3 (1.1) 0 (0) 0.14
Multiple myeloma 38 (3.9) 2 (0.9)a 23 (7.2)b 10 (3.8)b 3 (1.8)ab < 0.01
Other hematologic malignancy 26 (2.7) 7 (3.3)a 8 (2.5)b 8 (3.0)b 3 (1.8)a 0.81
Chemotherapy 163 (16.8) 18 (8.4) 74 (23.1) 55 (20.7) 16 (9.5) < 0.01
Solid organ/stem cell transplantation 6 (0.6) 3 (1.4) 2 (0.6) 0 (0) 1 (0.6) 0.29
Long-term steroid therapy 11 (1.1) 4 (1.9) 3 (0.9) 2 (0.8) 2 (1.2) 0.69
Chronic renal failure 54 (5.6) 9 (4.2) 20 (6.3) 17 (6.4) 8 (4.7) 0.65
Nephrotic syndrome 2 (0.2) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.62
HIV infection 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0.45
Diabetes mellitus 206 (21.2) 23 (10.7)a 78 (24.4)b 60 (22.6)b 45 (26.6)b < 0.01
Chronic liver disease 133 (13.7) 31 (14.4)a 71 (22.2)b 23 (8.6)c 8 (4.7)c < 0.01
Chronic pulmonary disease 81 (8.4) 4 (1.9)a 23 (7.2)b 25 (9.4)b 29 (17.2)c < 0.01
Chronic cardiovascular disease 76 (7.8) 9 (4.2)a 17 (5.3)a 22 (8.3)a 28 (16.6)b < 0.01
Cerebrovascular disease 58 (6.0) 9 (4.2)a 12 (3.8)a 23 (8.6)b 14 (8.3)ab 0.03
Neurodegenerative disease 14 (1.4) 0 (0)a 2 (0.6)a 5 (1.9)ab 7 (4.1)b < 0.01
Neuromuscular disease 9 (0.9) 2 (0.9) 2 (0.6) 2 (0.8) 3 (1.8) 0.37
Clinical presentation, no. (%)       
Primary bacteremia 190 (19.6) 40 (18.6)ab 75 (23.4)a 55 (20.7)a 20 (11.8)b 0.02
Bacteremic pneumonia 538 (55.5) 102 (47.4)a 160 (50.0)a 150 (56.4)a 126 (74.6)b < 0.01
Empyema 49 (5.1) 4 (1.9)a 14 (4.4)a 25 (9.4)b 6 (3.6)a < 0.01
Meningitis 84 (8.7) 35 (16.3)a 21 (6.6)b 20 (7.5)b 8 (4.7)b < 0.01
Peritonitis 74 (7.6) 23 (10.7)a 33 (10.3)a 13 (4.9)b 5 (3.0)b < 0.01
Septic arthritis 13 (1.3) 1 (0.5) 5 (1.6) 3 (1.1) 4 (2.4) 0.42
Infective endocarditis 2 (0.2) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.62
Time from symptom onset to admission (days), mean±SD 3.5±8.5 4.0±9.0 2.8±4.7 4.1±12.5 2.9±4.6 0.22
Recurrent infection, no. (%) 8 (0.8) 2 (0.9) 5 (1.6) 1 (0.4) 0 0.24
Site of acquisition of infection, no. (%)       < 0.01
Community 794 (81.9) 191 (88.8) 265 (82.8) 215 (80.8) 123 (72.8)  
Long-term care facility 42 (4.3) 4 (1.9) 7 (2.2) 7 (2.6) 24 (14.2)  
Tertiary referral hospital 134 (13.8) 20 (9.3) 48 (15.0) 44 (16.6) 22 (13.0)  
Proportion of IPD (cases/1,000 hospitalized patients) 0.36 0.21a 0.39b 0.49c 0.69d < 0.01
Case fatality rate, no. (%) 281/909 (30.9) 38/207 (18.4)a 83/309 (26.9)a 86/243 (35.4)b 74/150 (49.3)c < 0.01
Direct medical costs per case‡       0.11
Mean (95% CI) US $7,452 US $6,223 US $8,191 US $7,910 US $6,956  
  (6,816-8,088) (5,218-7,229) (6,963-9420) (6,645-9,175) (5,351-8,561)  
Median (IQR) US $4,772 US $4,092 US $5,095 US $5,320 US $4,439  
  (2,378-8,698) (2,364-7,844) (2,898-9,018) (2,796-10,590) (1,844-8,136)  
  1. ECOG, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; IQR, inter-quartile range.
  2. NOTE: The same letters (alphabetical superscripts) indicate non-significant differences between groups based on either Tukey’s multiple comparison tests or chi-square tests.
  3. * Defined as alcohol use for more than 5 days a week or having a diagnosis of alcoholism.
  4. Case fatality rates were based only on patients whose survival or death was confirmed.
  5. KRW1200=US$1.