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Table 1 Demographic, clinical data and primary outcome parameters

From: Procalcitonin-guided algorithm to reduce length of antibiotic therapy in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock

Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 P § p-value trend #  
Patient (n) 38 31 27 27 18    
Gender (m/f) 20/18 16/15 14/13 18/9 11/7 0.728 0.289  
Age (years)* 68.6 ±15.9 73.8 ±9.5 68.0 ±13.5 67.5 ±13.9 65.4 ±11.6 0.196 0.125  
SAPS II * 45.0 ±17.7 43.4 ±17.9 42.5 ±19.8 44.3 ±19.0 37.0 ±10.9 0.603 0.177  
Apache II * 20.0 ±8.8 20.5 ±8.8 18.2 ±8.7 17.9 ±9.7 15.6 ±7.2 0.327 0.041  
Effective cost weight * 14.8 ±13.6 13.3 ±11.4 17.2 ±14.0 14.5 ±13.6 19.2±18.5 0.623 0.256  
  Average change per year
Mean 95% CI p
ICU stay (days) 26.0 ± 1.9 19.5 ± 2.2 18.5 ± 2.3 16.3 ± 2.3 15.8 ± 2.8 −2.7 −4.1 to −1.3 < 0.001
Ventilation (hours) 571.4 ± 41.5 455.0 ± 47.3 404.1 ± 49.2 362.0 ± 49.9 467.9 ± 60.9 −42.0 −72.6 to −11.4 0.008
Antibiotic use (days) 14.3 ± 1.2 12.0 ± 1.3 13.8 ± 1.4 12.1 ± 1.4 9.0 ± 1.7 −1.0 −1.9 to −0.2 0.02
Antibiotic costs (EUR/patient) 407.6 ± 57.2 420.7 ± 66.7 426.6 ± 67.7 393.2 ± 68.5 373.9 ± 83.7 −14.3 −55.7 to 27.1 0.495
ICU reinfection rate (proportion) 0.31 ± 0.07 0.37 ± 0.08 0.13 ± 0.06 0.12 ± 0.06 0.08 ± 0.06 −35.1% −53.9% to −8.5% 0.014
28-day mortality (proportion) 0.54 ± 0.06 0.51 ± 0.07 0.55 ± 0.08 0.48 ± 0.07 0.34 ± 0.01 −22.4% −44.3% to 8.1% 0.133
  1. Demographic and clinical data:
  2. * Mean ± standard deviation.
  3. § F test of ANOVA (continuous characteristic) or Wald chi square test (categorical characteristic) of logistic regression model.
  4. # Linear polynomial contrasts (continuous characteristic) or Cochran-Armitage trend tests (categorical characteristic).
  5. SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II.
  6. APACHE II, Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation Score II.
  7. Primary outcome parameters:
  8. Adjusted Means ± standard error and average yearly change of outcome parameters, with 95 confidence limits (CI) and p values of trend tests from ANCOVA or logistic regression models with covariates gender, age, SAPS II, APACHE II and effective cost weight.