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Table 3 Factors associated with suboptimal ART adherence measured by the visual analogue scale (N=615)

From: Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Viet Nam: a cross-sectional study using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI)

Factors   % of optimal adherent group (n=462) % of suboptimal adherent group (n=153) Unadjusted OR1(95% CI) Adjusted OR2(95% CI) P value3
Socio-demographic factors
Sex Male 74.0 26.0 1   
Female 78.0 22.0 0.79(0.53–1.20)
Age 18–30 74.8 25.2 1
31–40 74.8 25.2 1.00(0.68–1.48)   
>= 40 78.1 21.9 0.83(0.43–1.61)   
Education <= Primary 59.6 40.4 1   
Higher 72.0 28.0 0.58(0.33–1.03)
Clinical factors
Site Kinh Mon & Chi Linh 67.9 32.1 1 1  
Dong Da 72.9 27.1 0.79(0.41–1.49) 1.20(0.57–2.52) 0.628
Dong Anh 82.0 18.0 0.46(0.24–0.90) 0.59(0.27–1.29) 0.188
Hai Duong 71.3 28.7 0.85(0.44–1.65) 1.34(0.61–2.93) 0.464
Distance from residence to clinic >10 km 78.6 21.4 0.68(0.47–0.99) 0.83(0.53–1.28) 0.396–
Alcohol and drug use       
Heavy alcohol use (last month) No 81.6 18.4 1
Yes 69.2 30.8 1.98(1.36–2.89)   
Illicit drug Use (last month) No 77.7 22.3 1
Yes 56.2 43.8 2.72(1.64–4.50)   
Interaction between drug and alcohol use No drug + No alcohol 81.2 18.8 1 1  
No drug + Alcohol 69.5 30.5 1.90(1.25–2.89) 2.14(1.34–3.41) .001
Drug + No alcohol 71.4 28.6 1.73(0.73–4.09) 1.49(0.59–3.80) .402
Drug + Alcohol 46.7 53.3 4.94(2.61–9.37) 5.04(2.46–10.32) <0.001
Depression No/mild symptom 78.7 21.3 1 1  
  Major symptom 63.7 36.3 2.10(1.40–3.14) 3.26(2.04–5.22) <0.001
  1. 1 unadjusted odds ratio of suboptimal adherence is obtained from the univariate analysis; 2 adjusted odds ratio is obtained from multivariate analysis (95% confidence interval); 3 p values of the adjusted odds ratio.