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Table 2 Association of residential crowding and severe RSV disease among high-risk a children (N = 9)

From: Residential crowding and severe respiratory syncytial virus disease among infants and young children: A systematic literature review

Study Crowding Variable Unadjusted Outcome(95% CI) Adjusted Outcome(95% CI)
Broughton et al., 2005 [15] Number of school-aged siblings Not conducted aOR 1.45 (1.03–2.06), P= 0.035
Bulkow et al., 2002 [23] ≥5 rooms in the house NS; OR NR NA
Shares bedroom with 4 others NS; OR NR NA
≥7 others in household OR 2.07 (NR), P= 0.003 NS, aOR NR
≥2 others aged <2 years in household OR 3.02 (NR), P= 0.011 NS, aOR NR
Household crowding indexb ≥2 OR 1.71 (NR), P= 0.005 aOR 1.72 (NR), P= 0.024
≥4 others aged <12 years in household OR 1.91 (NR), P= 0.005 aOR 2.13 (NR), P= 0.011
Shares bed with ≥1 other person OR 1.74 (NR), P= 0.007 aOR 2.20 (NR), P= 0.036 c
Carbonell-Estrany et al., 2000 [24] School-aged siblings (yes/no) P = 0.07 aOR 1.86 (1.01–3.4), P< 0.048
≥1 sibling vs. no siblings P = 0.9 NA
Carbonell-Estrany et al., 2001 [25] School-aged siblings (yes/no) P = 0.01 aOR 1.64 (1.05–2.55), P= 0.027
Figueras-Aloy et al., 2004 [26] ≥4 inhabitants in the home excluding study subject and school-aged siblings OR 1.79 (1.18–2.72), P= 0.015 aOR 1.91 (1.19–3.07), P =0.0074
≥1 school-aged sibling OR 2.40 (1.61–3.57), P< 0.00001 aOR 2.85 (1.88–4.33), P< 0.000001
Figueras-Aloy et al., 2008 [18] ≥4 inhabitants in the home excluding study subject and school-aged siblings NS, OR 1.37 (0.85 2.20), P = 0.238 NA
≥1 school-aged sibling OR 1.96 (1.47–2.60), P< 0.00001 NAd
Kanra et al., 2005 [27] Number of siblings NS Not conducted
Law et al., 2004 [19] >5 people living in household including study subject RR 2.41 (1.42–4.06), P= 0.001 NS, aOR 1.69 (0.93 3.10), P = 0.088
>5 people in the household including study subject (analysis corrected for changes in risk factor status from baseline) OR NR , P≤ 0.002 aOR 1.79 (1.02–3.16), P =0.044
  Preschool-aged siblings (yes/no) NA aOR 2.76 (1.51-5.03), P= 0.001
Simoes et al., 1993 [22] >4 persons living in the homee RR 1.1 (0.3 3.9) c , P NR aRR NR
>1 person per 19 m2 living areae RR 14.4 (1.9–109.6) c , ( P= 0.002) aRR NR
>1 child per 22 m2 living areae RR 8.4 (2.4–29.8) c , ( P= 0.004) aRR NR
>4 persons living in the homef NS, RR 0.77 (0.2 2.4) d , P NR aRR NR
>1 person per 19 m2 living areaf NS, RR 1.09 (0.3 4.5) d , P NR aRR NR
>1 child per 22 m2 living areaf NS, RR 2.8 (0.8 10.0) d , P NR aRR NR
  1. aOR = adjusted odds ratio; aRR = adjusted relative risk; CI = confidence interval; NA = not applicable, variable not included in the model; NR = not reported; NS = not significant; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk; RSV = respiratory syncytial virus; UK = United Kingdom; US = United States.
  2. Significant outcomes are presented in bold; nonsignificant outcomes are presented in italics.
  3. a High risk = high risk of severe RSV disease; includes studies of children born prematurely (<35 weeks gestation), of certain ethnicities (i.e. Alaska Natives; Inuits), or with chronic lung disease of prematurity or congenital heart disease.
  4. b Total number of persons divided by number of rooms excluding bathrooms, hallways, closets.
  5. c Multivariate outcome reported only for subgroup of children ≥6 months of age.
  6. d A joint variable, school-aged sibling(s) or day care attendance was included in the multivariate model.
  7. e Analysis based on subgroup of patients diagnosed with RSV pneumonia and hospitalized.
  8. f Analysis based on subgroup of patients diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis; 64% were hospitalized.